Presentation on theme: "Communicative Language Teaching (A functional approach since 1970s): it is an approach, not a method; a unified but broadly based theoretical position."— Presentation transcript:
Communicative Language Teaching (A functional approach since 1970s): it is an approach, not a method; a unified but broadly based theoretical position about the nature of language and of language learning and teaching.
Definition Teaching materials needed to express and understand different kinds of functions, such as requesting, describing, expressing likes and dislikes follows a Notional Syllabus or some other communicatively organized syllabus and emphasizes the processes of communication, such as using language appropriately in different kinds of tasks, e.g. to solve puzzles, to get information, and using language for social interaction with other people
The principles communication, task, meaningfulness principles the communication principle: Activities that involve communication promote lg learning. the task principle: Activities that involve the completion of real-world tasks promote learning. the meaningfulness principle: Learners must be engaged in meaningful and authentic language use for learning to take place.
The role of the teacher: 1- facilitator of students ’ learning 2- manager of classroom activities 3- advisor 4- co-communicator The role of the learner: 1- negotiator 2- communicator 3- contributor 4- independent learner
Main features Emphasis on learning to communicate in the TL The introduction of authentic texts into learning situations Focus on the learning process Making use of learner ’ s own personal experiences Creating real communication situations in the classroom
Influences The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. Language is a system for the expression of meaning. The activities that truly communicative have features of information gap, choice, and feedback; they must be guided by the teacher for unrehearsed situations. Authentic materials should be used. True communication is purposeful. Activities are better carried out in small groups in which interaction among students are maximized.
Criticism Being prejudiced in favor of native-speaker teachers by demanding a relatively uncontrolled range of language use and expecting the teacher to be able to respond to any and every language problem which may come up. A basis of group and pair work and less teacher intervention against education traditions Lack of the explicit teaching of grammar -> a consequent loss among students in accuracy in the pursuit of fluency.
Practice in the Classroom Grammatical structures had better be subsumed under various functional categories. Authentic materials are preferred. There should be less attention to grammatical rules but fluency should never be encouraged at the expense of clear, unambiguous, direct communication. Technology and increased teachers ’ lg proficiency now make achieving the goals of CLT possible.
Non-communicative activities No communicative desire No communicative purpose Form not content One language item only Teacher intervention Materials control
Communicative activities A desire to communicate A communicative purpose Content not form Variety of language No teacher intervention No materials control