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The Four Ancient Civilizations And Their Ten Features.

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Presentation on theme: "The Four Ancient Civilizations And Their Ten Features."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Four Ancient Civilizations And Their Ten Features

2 10 Features The term ‘Swastika’ derives from the ancient language of Sanskrit. It is a symbol of good luck for Hindus, Rebirth for Buddhists, and is found on architecture, coins, and pottery across many cultures around the world. The German Nazis rotated the symbol and used it as a symbol of their organization. They used the Swastika because they felt it would represent their Aryan lineage. Indus Valley

3 Cities Harappa Mohenjo-Daro Government Well-Organized Government Possibly led by powerful priest-kings Gateway at Harappa

4 Indus Valley Religion Polytheistic Mother Goddess (Source of creation) Honored animals, including the bull Job Specialization Farmers provided food for the civilization Priests Potters Merchants Traders Experts in Mathematics Traders

5 Indus Valley Social Classes While much of the civilization is shrouded in mystery, experts suspect there was a typical hierarchical order. The Indus Valley hosted cultural diversity, and many languages and traditions. Arts and Architecture Clay bricks to build houses Well-Planned Cities Great Bath of Mohenjo- Daro Great Bath -Mohenjo Daro

6 Indus Valley Public Works Modern Plumbing Sewers underneath the streets Baths Grid-Patterned Cities Writing Indus Valley Script

7 Indus Valley Geography The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers South Asia Subcontinent By the Indian Ocean Well-Watered Northern Plains Dry Triangular Deccan – plateau Coastal Plains Snow-Covered Mountains – Himalayas – Hindu Kush Monsoons Legacy Largest area controlled by any civilization until the Persians came along. Great architecture Well-Planned Cities 1 st to cultivate cotton and weave it into cloth Much of the Civilization is still shrouded in mystery

8 10 Features

9 Mesopotamia Cities Ur Kish Erech Babylon Sumer Government City-States Ruled by one ruler or king Priests had some power Scribes kept records and collected taxes T he City-State of Ur

10 Mesopotamia Religion Polytheistic Worshipped in sacred temples called Ziggurats Job Specialization Merchants Scribes Farmers Priests Kings Warriors Carving in Mesopotamia

11 Mesopotamia Social Classes Social Hierarchy – Royal Family – Officials and Priests – Merchants & Artisans – Farmers/Peasants – Servants/Slaves Arts and Architecture Ziggurats Palaces Ziggurat

12 Mesopotamia Public Works Steles—Hammurabi’s Code of Laws Defensive Walls Temples Palaces Roads Irrigation Systems Writing Cuneiform – Transformed as the civilization advanced Proto-Cuneiform Subject: Beer Rations

13 Mesopotamia Geography Fertile Crescent Tigris River Euphrates River Dark, rich soil Legacy Hammurabi’s Code of Laws – 1 st Set of Laws The First Wheel 1 st Empire First form of writing Hammurabi’s Code of Laws Stele, made of Diorite Maintained in Louvre, Paris

14 Egypt 10 Features

15 Egypt Cities Giza Sais Heliopolis Government Pharaoh—God-like Priests Yul Brynner as Pharaoh Rameses II -The Ten Commandments (1956)

16 Egypt Religion Polytheistic Believed in the afterlife Believed the pharaoh was directly related to the gods – God-like Job Specialization Government officials Crafters Traders Merchants Farmers Workers Overseers Warriors Priests Amon Ra -God Of Ancient Egypt

17 Egypt Social Classes Hierarchy – Ruling Family – High Priests – Nobles – Merchants – Scribes – Artisans – Farmers – Workers – Slaves Arts and Architecture Great Sphinx Pyramids Tombs Hieroglyphics Sculptures Pottery Coffins Make-Up Tomb Painting -Valley of the Kings

18 Egypt Public Works Pyramids Temples Roads Tombs Structures to control the flooding Nile River Irrigation Systems Writing Hieroglyphics The Great Pyramids -Giza Plateau Hieroglyphics

19 Egypt Geography Hot and Dry Dessert Fertile Area Around the Nile River North Africa Legacy Pyramids Mummification Art Treasure Academics Tutankhamun's visceral coffin Anubis Finishing Mummification -Tomb of Amennakht Bronze Cat Statuette -Ancient Egypt

20 China 10 Features

21 China Cities Anyang Luoyang Zhengzhou Government Empire Emperor Shang Kings Shang Tang

22 China Religion Polytheistic Shangdi Mother Goddess Job Specialization Peasants/Workers Farmers Artisans Merchants Officials Warriors Silk Makers Shangdi

23 China Social Classes Hierarchy – Royal Family – Noble Warriors – Artisans and Merchants – Peasants Arts and Architecture Calligraphy Palaces Sculptures Paintings Temples Oracle Bones Bronze Work Iron Work Chinese Calligraphy

24 China Public Works Palaces Temples Irrigation The Great Wall of China Dams Writing Calligraphy The Great Wall of China (Winter) The Great Wall of China (Summer)

25 China Geography High Mountain Ranges – Tien Shan – Himalayas Deserts Jungles Pacific Ocean Yellow Sea Huang He River Wei River Yangzi River Legacy Silk Thread and Clothing First Books – Zhou Period Silk Road The Great Wall of China Ancient Chinese Landscape Painting Handscroll; Ink & pale color on silk Shang King

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