All Students TIER 1 STANDARDS BASED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION/LEARNING All students participate in instruction that is: - In the general education classroom - Standards-based - Differentiated - Evidenced-based - Guided by progress monitoring & balanced assessment - Planned to address all developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social etc.)
Tier 1 Using the national models, approximately 80% of students will learn sufficiently in Tier 1. This tier reflects effective instruction in every classroom. Designed for 100% of students. Every student participates in Tier 1. Some may also have other tiers layered for their success.
TIER 2 NEEDS BASED LEARNING: STANDARD INTERVENTION PROTOCOLS Targeted students participate in additional instruction that: Is different from Tier 1 Uses established intervention protocols Provides enhanced opportunities for extended learning Takes advantage of the flexibility of small groups Includes greater frequency in progress monitoring Addresses needs in all developmental domains (academic, communication/language, social etc.)
Tier 2 Instruction that is: In addition to, not in place of, Tier 1 Pre-planned Usually delivered in small groups Designed for flexible groupings Short-term in nature A component of general education
TIER 3 SST DRIVEN INSTRUCTION/LEARNING Targeted students participate in: -Individual assessment -Tailored interventions to respond to their needs -Frequent formative assessments -Consideration for specially designed instruction only when data confirms a need (e.g. gifted, special ed)
TIER 4 SPECIALLY DESIGNED INSTRUCTION/LEARNING Targeted students participate in: -Specialized programs -Adapted content, methodology, or instructional delivery -GPS access/extension
What is RTI? Response to Intervention A process of providing effective instructional practices that are matched to student need. Monitoring progress frequently to make data- based decisions about changes to instruction or goals. Applying student response data to making important educational decisions. (National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005 )
RTI assists in: Making decisions about the effectiveness of instruction/interventions. Making early identification of academic and behavioral problems. Preventing unnecessary and excessive identification of students with disabilities. Deciding eligibility for special education. Determining IEP content, and delivery and evaluation of special education services. (National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 2005).
Intervention Planning and Progress Monitoring Step 1: Determine who needs additional support through intervention and in what area(s) the students require support. Step 2: Determine short and long term goals for students that need intervention. Set up a schedule for progress monitoring. Step 3: Develop a plan for each student who requires intervention. Group students by the specific skills in which they require intervention. Step 4: Determine who will implement the interventions and when and where the interventions will occur. Step 5: As students master skills, move students to different intervention groups to begin work on mastering other necessary skills.
Georgia DOE Criteria for Evaluating Possible Universal Screeners: Easily Administered Research Based Highly correlated to skills being assessed Benchmark or predictor of future performance Reliability and Validity Sensitive to small increments of change Expected identified rates of increase Data analysis and reporting component
Appropriate Interventions It is crucial to determine the reason(s) for poor performance in order to select an appropriate intervention: Skill Deficit: The student lacks the necessary skills to perform the academic task. ‘Fragile’ Skills: The student possesses the necessary skills but is not yet fluent and automatic in those skills. Performance (Motivation) Deficit: The student has the necessary skills but lacks the motivation to complete the academic task.
Supplementary Tier II Practices Best Practice: The Tier 1 non-responder participates in small group instruction with students who share similar instructional weaknesses. The group is taught at least 3 times per week, 30 minutes per session, by a certified teacher or aide who can accurately implement an evidence-based protocol.
When to determine Tier II success? Best Practice: At-risk students are assessed every week for 10 weeks in the area of risk using brief monitoring tools. Adequate Tier 2 response is operationalized using (a) local or national normative estimates for weekly improvement.
Montgomery County Public School: Example of Tier II Implementation (Kovaleski, 2004) Students at “risk” were referred for problem solving and progress monitoring at each grade level. At risk students were those that scored below 25 th percentile on previous year’s state assessment. Using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy (DIBELS) All K- 4th grade at-risk students were screened (Nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency) 10/2004 Students grouped in three groups LOW RISK SOME RISK AT RISK (10/2004) Students in the some risk and at-risk groups were given 1 hour of focused reading in combination with their regular reading block. Progress monitoring during additional 1 hour instruction occurred every 2 weeks.
Examples of schools providing Tier II support Extended Learning Time After school Programs EIP program Academic skills for Connection Class High School Basic Reading or Math Class Interventionist during uninterrupted 90 minute academic block (small group instruction)