2 The Traditional Sonnet Form of Lyrical Poetry14 LinesDistinct rhyme schemeSpecific meteriambic pentameter (10 syllables per line)iambic hexameter (12 syllables per line)
3 Three Main Types of Sonnets Petrarchan (or Italian) Shakespearean (or English) Spenserian
4 Iambic Pentameter Example: divine = di vine Five “iambs” – pent = five An iamb is two syllables: one soft andone stressed ∪ ∕∪ ∕Example: divine = di vine
5 Iambic Pentameter Iambic Pentameter is a line with five iambs – 10 syllables – with a pattern of ∪ ∕ ∪ ∕ ∪ ∕Try it out:My dearest Love, you’ve suffered such abuse.My heart, my X-box: DEAD from over-use!
6 Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet Named for Italian poet, Petrarch,14 Lines in two parts:Octave (first eight lines)Sestet (final six lines)The octave poses a problem, a reflection, a questionThe sestet answers, responds, or resolves the octave. This turn in focus is called the volta.
7 Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet * Rhyme schemes vary* Theme of Courtly Love* Written in sequences, with several sonnets addressing a single idea or person
8 Shakespearean (English) Sonnet Specific rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef ggIambic pentameter12 lines address topicVolta (turn) occurs with rhyming couplet at the end
9 Shakespearean SonnetShakespeare left London and the theatre during plague of to work on his poetry154 sonnets in three sequencesOne sequence to a young manAnother sequence to his mistress, known as “The Dark Lady”Third sequence addresses a variety of life’s issues: betrayal, weariness, exasperation with the world, etc.
10 Shakespearean SonnetShakespeare broke the “sonnet rules” established by Petrarch Speaks about politics and human evils having nothing to do with loveMakes fun of love and parodies beautyTalks about sex (eek!)
11 Spenserian Sonnet Variation of the Shakespearean sonnet Combines Shakespeare’s and Petrarch’s formsThree quatrains and a couplet (like Shakespeare)Interlocking rhyme scheme (like Petrarch):abab bcbc cdcd ee
12 Quick Quiz: Petrarchan, Shakespearean, or Spenserian? Let me not to the marriage of true minds (aAdmit impediments, love is not love (b)Which alters when it alteration finds, (a)Or bends with the remover to remove. (b)O no, it is an ever fixed mark (c)That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d)It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c)Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d)Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e)Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f)Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e)But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f)If this be error and upon me proved, (g)I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)
13 Yes! Shakespearean!The give-away is the distinctive rhyme scheme with the couplet volta at the end:abab cdcd efef gg
14 Try Again! Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour: (a) England hath need of thee: she is a fen (b)Of stagnant waters: altar, sword, and pen, (b)Fireside, the heroic wealth of hall and bower, (a)Have forfeited their ancient English dower (a)Of inward happiness. We are selfish men; (b)Oh! raise us up, return to us again; (b)And give us manners, virtue, freedom, power. (a)Thy soul was like a Star, and dwelt apart; (c)Thou hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea: (d)Pure as the naked heavens, majestic, free, (d)So didst thou travel on life's common way, (e)In cheerful godliness; and yet thy heart (c)The lowliest duties on herself did lay. (e)
15 Right! Petrarchan!The key is the volta at the sestet on line 9. The octave and sestet format is the hallmark of a Petrarchan sonnet.