2 Key Elements of Disability SitAns (1) HRBAEquityLifecycle ApproachDisability Community as Key StakeholdersSocial Model of DisabilityInclusive Development ApproachStrengthen Data and Qualitative Analysis
3 Key Elements of Disability SitAns (1) 1. Human Rights Based Approach: In line with UNICEF guidelines to apply a rights-based approach to Programming (EXDIR ) disability SitAns must consider the country’s efforts towards implementing the rights of all children as outlined in the CRC, CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.2. Equity: For UNICEF, equity means that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop and reach their full potential without discrimination, bias or favouritism. This interpretation is consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which guarantees the fundamental rights of every child regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, geographical location or other status. The equity-based approach in UNICEF’s programmes and policies seeks to understand and address the root causes of inequity so that all children, particularly those who suffer the worst deprivations in society, have access to education, health care, sanitation, clean water, protection and other services necessary for their survival, growth and development.3. Social Model of Disability: In line with the Convention on the Rights of Children with Disabilities, a focus on eliminating barriers created by society or the physical environment that limit a person from enjoying their human rights should be the basis for analysis in the SitAn. This includes for example promoting positive attitudes, changing the environment to be accessible for all and providing information in a way that everyone can understand. It is different from the charity or medical models of disability that view disability as a result of an individual’s impairment or medical condition that can be cured or fixed with medical attention.
4 Key Elements of Disability SitAns (2) 4. Disability Community as Key Stakeholders: In accordance with the right to participation outlined in Article 21 of the CRPD and the slogan of the disability community “Nothing about us, without us”, people with disabilities and their families must be engaged and consulted throughout the SitAn process. This will promote ownership within the disability community and ensure their voices are heard in setting priorities, planning and implementation.5. Lifecycle approach: Disability varies across the lifespan and depending on a variety of environmental factors, therefore a SitAn must consider the variations and implications in each of the phases of life: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age.6. Inclusive Development Approach: To ensure the full participation of children and mothers with disabilities an inclusive development approach should be applied to the SitAn, which aims to ensure that all groups regardless of age, disability, poverty, gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation contribute to creating opportunities, share the benefits of development as well as participate in decision-making.7. Strengthen data and qualitative analysis: While data on childhood disability is limited in many countries, the SitAn is an opportunity to identify, strengthen and make recommendations for further data collection and analysis. It is also a critical opportunity to undertake new qualitative research to inform policy reform and set priorities.
5 Key Questions for Disability SitAns (1) 1. Has the government signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, CRC and CEDAW, and if so, to what extent are they realizing the rights for children with disabilities in line with the three Conventions?2. What existing social, institutional and political factors (e.g. social norms, institutional capacities at all levels of government, accountability and coordination mechanisms, policy and legal frameworks) impede or could potentially support the creation of an enabling environment for the realization of the rights of children with disabilities?3. What capacities exist at national, sub-national and community levels to participate in analytical processes that examine the causes and consequences of shortfalls and inequities and to what extent is the disability community involved in such efforts and with what results?4. To what extent are social protection measures and social budgeting inclusive and reach children with disabilities and their families?5. How do you measure gaps and monitor parameters (set of indicators) while implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of people with disabilities and CRC? KAZ
6 Key Questions for Disability SitAns (1) 6. Which are the most deprived groups of children and parents with disabilities? What forms of deprivation and exclusion do these groups face? What are the determining factors that give rise to and perpetuate their exclusion?7. What are the underlying causes of inequalities among the disability community?8. What are the immediate, underlying and structural barriers and bottlenecks to the well- being of children with disabilities and to accessing and utilizing basic social services and other critical resources?9. What risks (conflict, natural hazards, etc.) exist that are likely to affect the patterns of deprivation and exclusion, exacerbate or create barriers and bottlenecks?10. How do outcomes and trends differ across sub-groups (e.g. girls with disabilities, indigenous youth with disabilities) and regions?11. What programme interventions and resource mobilization and allocation options should be considered in the future, in order to address specific dimensions of inequity and pervasive vulnerabilities of children with disabilities and their families?
7 Lessons LearnedWhere there is limited information available related to the situation of children with disabilities: researchers can use participatory/qualitative approaches. In Sudan, associations of people with disability, parents, and children were the main sources of information. In resource poor countries, parents are a particularly rich source of information on gaps in service provision for their children. The process of doing the research is as important as the product itself. This process can serve as a catalyst in mobilising government and organisations of people working with disability.To ensure Government ownership, establish a steering committee comprised of key players that should be involved in all stages of the process: Social Welfare, Health, Education, Child Council, etc.Where disability is not in the media, use the report process to share empowering images and key messages. In Sudan, communication materials complimented the research process. The CO collected human interest stories, produced a Youtube video, and created a webpage on disability in the country as part of the process.
8 Consultant Qualifications Strong background in disability and child rightsinclude detailed knowledge on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the CRC, the social model of disability and extensive personal or professional experience with the disability community.It is also beneficial if they have experience with participatory research, particularly in countries where not much data exists.If candidates do not have strong background in all the areas mentioned aboveAn alternative option would be to hire two consultants to work as a team. One would bring significant experience in conducting SitAns and the other with a strong disability background. Ideally one of the pair would be local and the other could be international to bring an independent viewpoint. What is most critical is to ensure the disability expert has a full understanding of the social model. This was the case in Bangladesh where they hired two consultants including an international expert on child rights with experience conducting SitAns and a national expert on the situation of children with disabilities. In the case like in Kazakhstan, where local disability consultants may be limited, they hired an international team to have an independent view on the situation in the country and consulted with local specialists on child disability while developing the methodology. In this approach extra effort has to be made to ensure the report findings have a strong disability lens.The HQ Disability Section has sample ToRs for consultants and can help evaluate a consultant’s level of understanding about the social model.