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CHAPTER 19 Building Software.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 19 Building Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 19 Building Software

2 Learning Outcomes Identify the business benefits associated with successful software development Describe the seven phases of the systems development life cycle Summarize the different software development methodologies Define the relationship between the systems development life cycle and software development methodologies

3 Overview Software that is built correctly can support agile organizations and can transform as the organization and its business transforms Software that effectively meets employee needs will help an organization become more productive and enhance decision making Software that does not meet employee needs may have a damaging effect on productivity and can even cause a business to fail

4 Overview As organizations’ reliance on software grows, so do the business-related consequences of software successes and failures including: Increase or decrease revenue Repair or damage to brand reputation Prevent or incur liabilities Increase or decrease productivity

5 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
SDLC - the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance

6 SDLC: Planning Planning phase – involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals When creating a feasibility study, it is important to focus on Economic feasibility- assesses the costs and benefits of the new system – “Is building the new system cost effective?” Operational feasibility evaluates whether people in the organization will use the new system – “Will the new system be used by the people in the organization?” Technical feasibility examines the technical aspects of the new system – “Is it technically possible to create the new system?”

7 SDLC: Analysis Phase Analysis phase – involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system Business requirements – the detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful Three steps: understanding the old system identifying how the old system can be improved developing specifications for the new system

8 SDLC: Design Phase Design phase – involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation The design phase addresses "how" the system will accomplish the objectives During the design phase, each portion of the new system is designed in detail, including the user interface, data structure, and the program design

9 SDLC: Development & Testing Phases
Development phase – involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system Testing phase – involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase

10 SDLC: Implementation Phase
Implementation phase – involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system Four types of conversion methods parallel conversion pilot conversion phased conversion plunge conversion

11 SDLC: Maintenance phase
Maintenance phase – involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals

12 Software Development Methodologies
Waterfall Rapid application development (RAD) Extreme programming Agile

13 Waterfall methodology
a sequential, activity-based process in which each phase in the SDLC is performed sequentially from planning through implementation and maintenance

14 Rapid application development methodology (RAD)
RAD – emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process The prototype is an essential part of the analysis phase when using a RAD methodology. Prototype – a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users’ requirements or a proposed design for an information system

15 Extreme programming (XP) methodology
XP methodology – breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete

16 Agile Methodology Agile methodology – a form of XP, aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components Agile is similar to XP but with less focus on team coding and more on limiting project scope An agile project sets a minimum number of requirements and turns them into a deliverable product

17 Principles for successful agile software development
Slash the budget – Small budgets force developers and users to focus on the essentials If it doesn’t work, kill it – Bring all key stakeholders together to evaluate and assess the software Keep requirements to a minimum – Start each project with what the software must absolutely do Test and deliver frequently – As often as once a week, complete a part of the project Assign non-IT executives to software projects – Non-IT executives should coordinate with the technical project manager, test iterations to make sure they are meeting user needs, and act as liaisons between executives and IT

18 interdependent variables
Project Management Project management – the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project Project management software – supports the long-term and day-to-day management and execution of the steps in a project Project management interdependent variables

19 why IT projects fall behind schedule or fail
Common reasons why IT projects fall behind schedule or fail

20 Opening Case Study Questions
List and describe the seven phases in the systems development life cycle and determine which phase is most important to Cisco when it is developing software Review the primary principles of successful software development and prioritize them in order of importance for’s business strategy Explain why building agile software is important to all seven of the companies Assess the impact to IBM’s business if it decided to use the waterfall methodology to build its customers’ information systems

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