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**Diode Circuits Chapter 3 Dr.Debashis De Associate Professor**

West Bengal University of Technology

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**Outline Introduction Analysis of Diode Circuits Load line and Q-point**

Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator Rectifiers Clipper and Clamper Circuits Comparators Additional Diode Circuits

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INTRODUCTION In the field of electronics, the simplest and the most fundamental non-linear circuit element is the diode. The p–n junction diode is considered to be a circuit element. For easy and lucid evaluation of the diode element, the concept of load line is extremely important. Among the many applications of diodes, their use in the design of rectifiers, which convert ac to dc, is the most common. The piecewise linear model is used in certain applications of diodes, namely clippers, rectifiers and comparators. Many more such circuits are possible with one or more diodes being implemented in them.

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**ANALYSIS OF DIODE CIRCUITS**

The basic diode circuit consists of a voltage source in series with a resistor and a diode. The circuit might be analysed properly to obtain the instantaneous current and diode voltage. For such an analysis to be done, the concept of load line and its effective use in various circuits has to be thoroughly understood. The concept of load line is absolutely essential.

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LOAD LINE AND Q-POINT The applied load will normally have an impact on the region (or point) of operation of a device. If the analysis is performed in a graphical manner, a line can be drawn on the characteristics of the device to represent the applied load. The intersection of the load line with the characteristics will determine the point of operation of the system. Physically, this point of operation mainly determines the conditions under which the device is to be operated in a circuit. This case takes care of the various intriguing attributes of the circuit. This kind of an analysis is known as the load-line analysis. Analysis of a basic diode circuit

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LOAD LINE AND Q-POINT Under normal conditions, this resistance is approximately 10 Ω. Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) of circuit theory, to the series, we obtain: If VD = 0 V, we can calculate ID and plot the magnitude of ID on the vertical axis. If ID = 0 A, we can calculate VD and plot the magnitude of VD on the horizontal axis. I-V characteristics of the diode

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**The load line on the characteristics of the diode**

LOAD LINE AND Q-POINT A straight line drawn between two points will define the load line. If the value of R is changed, the intersection on the vertical axis will change. This affects the slope of the load line, and gives a different point of intersection between the load line and the device characteristics. The point of intersection between the device characteristics and the load line (VD0 , ID0 ) is called the point of operation or the quiescent point (Q-point) as defined by a dc network. Illustration of a load line when: (1) voltage is constant and resistance varies (2) voltage varies and the resistance is constant The load line on the characteristics of the diode

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**Change of Q-point with changes in supply voltage and load**

LOAD LINE AND Q-POINT Change of Q-point with changes in supply voltage and load Load line

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**ZENER DIODE AS VOLTAGE REGULATOR**

A Zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator because it maintains a constant output voltage even thought he current passing through it changes. It is generally used at the output of an unregulated power supply to provide a constant output voltage free of ripple components. The input current: Zener regulation of a variable input voltage

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**ZENER DIODE AS VOLTAGE REGULATOR**

There are two types of regulation: (i) Regulation with varying input voltage, also known as line regulation (ii) Regulation with varying load resistance, also known as load regulation Load regulation showing the variation of load voltage VL and RL taking Vi as constant Output voltage vs. input voltage for line regulation

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**RECTIFIERS Half-wave Rectifiers**

In a half-wave rectifier, the output waveform occurs after each alternate half-cycle of the input sinusoidal signal. The half-wave rectifier will generate an output waveform vo. Between the time interval t = 0 to T/2, the polarity of the applied voltage vi is such that it makes the diode forward-biased. As a result the diode is turned on, i.e., the forward voltage is more than the cut-in voltage of the diode.

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**RECTIFIERS Conduction region (0 to T/2)**

Non-conducting region (T/2 to T )

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RECTIFIERS Half-wave rectified signal

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**RECTIFIERS Full-wave Rectifier**

The full-wave rectifier can be classified into two distinct types. (i) Centre-tapped transformer full-wave rectifier:- It comprises of two half-wave circuits, connected in such a manner that conduction takes place through one diode during one half of the power cycle and through the other diode during the second half of the cycle. Full-wave rectifier

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**RECTIFIERS Waveform for full-wave rectifier**

(ii) Bridge type full-wave rectifier:- The most important disadvantage of the centre-tapped rectifier is that it brings in the use of a heavy transformer with three terminals at its output, i.e., a centre-tapped transformer. The centre tapping may not be perfect in most cases. This problem can be solved by designing another circuit with four diodes and a simple transformer. This is called a bridge rectifier.

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**RECTIFIERS Bridge rectifier Advantages of a bridge rectifier**

(i) In the bridge circuit a transformer without a centre tap is used. (ii) The bridge circuit requires a smaller transformer as compared to a full-wave rectifier giving the identical rectified dc output voltage. (iii) For the same dc output voltage, the PIV rating of a diode in a bridge rectifier is half of that for a full -wave circuit. (iv) The bridge circuit is more appropriate for high-voltage applications, thus, making the circuit compact.

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**RECTIFIERS Disadvantages of a bridge rectifier**

(i) Two or more diodes are required in case of a bridge rectifier, as a full-wave rectifier uses two diodes whereas a bridge rectifier uses four diodes. (ii) The amount of power dissipated in a bridge circuit is higher as compared to a full-wave rectifier. Hence, the bridge rectifier is not efficient as far as low voltages are concerned. A full-wave capacitor-filtered rectifier

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

A clipper is a type of diode network that has the ability to “clip off” a portion of the input signal without distorting the remaining part of the alternating waveform. The half-wave rectifier is an example of the simplest form of diode clipper—one resistor and a diode. Depending on the orientation of the diode, the positive or negative region of the input signal is “clipped” off. There are two general categories of clippers: series and parallel. Series clipper:- A series clipper and its response for two types of alternating waveforms are provided. Series clipper circuit Response of clipper circuit

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

Key points The first step is to find out in which interval of the input signal the diode is in forward-bias. The direction of the diode suggests that the signal vi must be positive to turn it on. The dc supply further requires the voltage vi to be greater than v volts to turn the diode on.The negative region of the input signal turns the diode into the OFF state. Therefore, in the negative region the diode is an open circuit. Series clipper with a dc supply

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**Determining the transition level of the input signal**

CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS Determine the applied voltage (transition voltage) that will cause a change in state for the diode. For the ideal diode the transition between states will occur at that point on the characteristics where vd = 0 V and id = 0 A. Applying this condition, it is recognized that the level of vi that will cause a transition in state is: vi = V For an input voltage greater than V volts, the diode is in the short-circuit state, while for input voltage less than V volts it is in the open-circuit or OFF state (as it is reverse-biased). Determining the transition level of the input signal Determining vo in the clipper circuit

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

Be continually aware of the defined terminals and polarity of vo. When the diode is in the short-circuit state, the output voltage vo can be determined by applying KVL in the clock-wise direction: It can be helpful to sketch the input signal above the output and determine the output at instantaneous values of the input. It is then possible to sketch the output voltage from the resulting data points of vo. Determining levels of vo

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

For Vm > V, the diode is in the short-circuit state and vo = Vm – V. At vi = V, the diode changes state and vi = – Vm, vo = 0 V. The complete curve for vo can be sketched. Determining vo when vi Vm Sketch for vo

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

Parallel clipper:- Input vi is applied for the output vo. The analysis of parallel configuration is very similar to the series configuration. Parallel clipper Response of parallel clipper

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

Break region There is a discontinuity at the voltage Vγ. Actually the transition of a diode state is not exactly abrupt but gradual. Thus, a waveform, which is transmitted through the clipper circuit, will not show an abrupt clipping. Instead, it will show a gradual broken region, exhibiting the regions of un-attenuated and attenuated transmission. Now, we will estimate the range of this break region. The output current of a diode is given by: The incremental diode resistance r = dv/dI is given by: Again for meaningful clipping to be done, the applied signal must vary from one side of the break point to a point well on the other side. at diode break point

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

A clamping network is one that will “clamp” a signal to a different dc level. The network must have a capacitor, a diode, and a resistive element, but it can also employ an independent dc supply to introduce an additional shift. Before further probing into the clamper circuit one must have a basic understanding of a transient RC circuit. From the basic understanding of a series RC transient circuit applied across a dc voltage EO, the instantaneous charge across the capacitor at any time is given by Q0=E0C where, C is the capacitance of the capacitor. We know that the time constant τ = RC. The rise time becomes smaller if we decrease the time constant. Charging of a RC circuit

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**CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS**

The discharge will occur quickly if the time constant of the circuit is decreased. The magnitude of R and C must be so chosen that the time constant, τ = RC, is large enough to ensure that the voltage across the capacitor does not discharge significantly during the interval the diode is non-conducting. Discharging of an RC circuit The clamping circuit will clamp the input signal to the zero level. Simple clamper circuit

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**State of the circuit in the negative half-cycle**

CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS During the interval 0 –T/2 the network will appear, with the diode in the ON state effectively “shorting out” the effect of the resistor R. The resulting RC time constant is so small that the capacitor will charge to V volts very quickly. During this interval the output voltage is directly across the short circuit and vo = 0 V. The diode will now be in the open-state condition. Applying KVL around the input loop of figure will result in: The negative sign results from the fact that the polarity of 2 V is opposite to the polarity defined for vo. For a clamping network the total swing of the output is equal to the total swing of the input. State of the circuit in the negative half-cycle

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COMPARATORS The diode circuit which has been used in the design of the clipping circuit can also be used for the purpose of comparison, hence the name comparator. The basic principle on which the comparator works is the switching of the diodes. This action corresponds to the phase when the diode conducts; and when it does, the comparator circuit is used to compare the input arbitrary voltage with the reference voltage. A diode comparator Input signal with the threshold voltage Corresponding output waveform

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**ADDITIONAL DIODE CIRCUITS**

Voltage Multiplier The voltage multiplier is a passive circuit, similar to the rectifier circuit and gives an output which is approximately equal to a certain multiple of the peak value of the peak input voltage. Here it is possible to obtain a dc voltage equal to the peak value of the applied ac voltage. Peak Detector The half-wave rectifier circuit can be suitably manipulated to obtain the peak detector circuit. The working principle depends on the charging and discharging of the capacitor, and also on the conducting and non-conducting regions of the diode. Its simple circuit consists of a diode kept in series with a resistor and a load at the end. Peak detector Voltage doublers

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**ADDITIONAL DIODE CIRCUITS**

Digital Circuits In various kinds of analog to digital converters, and in many digital circuits, diodes are extensively brought to use. Their primary domain of operation is switching, i.e., to keep a portion of a large circuit in the ON state, selectively for a given interval of time. They, in coherent action with resistors, form many important logic families, which are used in digital electronic circuits. Switching Regulators Power supplies with switching regulators offer great versatility, as the design of power supplies employing this type of regulator can be lighter and more compact. Another advantage of these power supplies is that the circuit can be designed to give an output voltage that is higher than the unregulated voltage or, has a different polarity. But there is also a disadvantage. The circuit becomes more complex because of the control circuitry. The structure of the converter can be of three types: buck, boost and buck–boost.

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