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L'alfabeto degli odori
L’alfabeto degli odoriAnna Menini Neurobiology Sector International School for Advanced Studies Trieste, Italy
Common Odor Compounds alkanes Halides aldehydes amine alcoholsformiates X O H alcohols C carboxylic acids R aldehydes ketones esters OR alkanes X C N cyanide S H thiol 2 amine B r Halides
What is a transduction process?A transduction process is how the energy of an external stimulus is converted into an electrical signal
Sensory cells convert a stimulus into an electrical response by a process known as SENSORY TRANSDUCTION
How many mechanisms of transduction?Na Ca2+ 1- IONOTROPIC 2- METABOTROPIC molecules Light Na+ Ca2+ l R G C
Receptor potential= Generator potentialThe change in membrane potential produced by the stimulus is a graded potential and can be: positive or depolarizing negative or hyperpolarizing
Sensory receptor cellsSome sensory receptor cells have axons and generate action potentials Other cells do not generate action potentials
Scanning electron micrograph of theolfactory epithelium E. Morrison and R. Costanzo
1mm Morrison and Costanzo 1990
Olfactory transduction takes place in the cilia
How many odorant receptor genes?
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004Linda Buck Richard Axel “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”
350 recettori 1000 recettori
How many type of odorant receptor per cell?1 type only
Randomly in each of four zonesHow are odorant receptors spatially expressed in the olfactory epithelium? Randomly in each of four zones
How many odorant molecules can activate an olfactory sensory neuron ?One neuron can respond to many odorant molecules
One type of odorant molecule: how many types of odorant receptors can activate?One type of odorant molecule can activate many types of odorant receptors
Denis A N D I P U F P O D R A B U P A N U B N C I A P B N O C D U G I
From olfactory epithelium to olfactory bulbRepresentation of olfactory information
Zonal Organization in the Olfactory SystemMori et al., 1999
Un certo odore attiva una definita combinazione di glomeruli
Information coding in the olfactory cortex
Epithelium Bulb Cortex
NASO BULBO CORTECCIA
Olfactory transduction cAMP is the main second messenger
Ca concentration increases in the cilia and has a dual effect 1- excitatory 2- inhibitory
Ca excitatory effect: direct activation of Cl current In situ Cl gradient measurements (rat, mucus/knob concentrations) [Cl-]i = 69 mM [Cl-]o = 55 mM Ecl = +6mV (Reuter et al.)
Adaptation Adaptation adjusts the dynamic range of the response to allow the sensory cell to respond to changes in odor concentration over a wide range.
Mechanism of adaptationIntracellular Calcium concentration controls adaptation acting on the transduction cascade
Transduction in an olfactory sensory neuron
Caged compound Uncaged: physiologically active
8-Bromo-cAMP 1- is resistant to hydrolysis by PDE2- activates cAMP-gated channels with higher affinity than cAMP
Transduction in an olfactory sensory neuron
Collaborators Japan Takashi Kurahashi Germany Benjamin Kaupp USAStuart Firestein Peter Mombaerts C.N.R. Genova Cristiana Picco Paola Gavazzo S.I.S.S.A. Trieste Laura Lagostena Anna Boccaccio Andrea Mazzatenta Giulietta Pinato Simone Pifferi Ranken Shimazaki
Olfactory, Gustatory Objectives: For each sense identify… specialized organs, anatomy receptor structure and specializations receptor signal transduction.
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Receptors & Signaling. Assumed Knowledge Structure of membrane proteins Ion concentrations across membranes Second messengers in signal transduction Regulation.
Neurophysiology Opposite electrical charges attract each other In case negative and positive charges are separated from each other, their coming together.
Chapter 3 The Neuronal Membrane at Rest.
SPPA 2050 Speech Anatomy & Physiology 1 Neuronal Function Goal: electrochemical communication Requirement: Electrochemical signal generation Electrochemical.
Nucleus Dendrites Collect electrical signals Cell body Integrates incoming signals and generates outgoing signal to axon Axon Passes electrical signals.
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Today –Sensory receptors General properties –Skin receptors.
Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer The squid possesses extremely large nerve cells and is a good model for studying.
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Lecture 12: olfaction: the insect antennal lobe References: H C Mulvad, thesis (http://www.nordita.dk/~mulvad/Thesis), Ch 2http://www.nordita.dk/~mulvad/Thesis.
Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: Lines of Communication.
General Organization - CNS and PNS - PNS subgroups The basic units- the cells - Neurons - Glial cells Neurophysiology - Resting, graded and action potentials.
Make Up Neuro Blok 3 Juli 2014 dr I Njoman Widajadnja, M.Kes (Fis Olahraga)
Types of Ion Channels Leak channels
Faizan Kalwar. Basal cells – replace receptor neurons (a feature unique to the olfactory neurons) Sustenacular cells – scattered throughout epithelium,
Inhibitory and Excitatory Signals
1 Chapter 52 Molecular Basis of Olfaction and Taste Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Figure 15.1 Organization of the human olfactory system.
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BGYB30 Midterm 2004 Total number of Marks available= 56 I will record all of the grades out of 54 total marks. Small adjustment of +0.5 for different markers.
The sense of smell Outline Main Olfactory System Odor Detection Odor Coding Accessory Olfactory System Pheromone Detection Pheromone Coding 1.
Taste. circumvallate papilla labelled lines There are five recognised modalities: sweet, sour, bitter, salt & umami. All mature taste bud cells have.
Olfact = To smell Olfaction detects chemicals in solution which is detected in the Olfactory Epithelium which is a yellow-tinged patch located in.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Senses Chemoreceptors for chemicals in aqueous solution.
Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ch 48 – Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Neurons transfer information.
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