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An Introduction of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction of 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

2 Outline History of 3GPP LTE Basic Concepts of LTE
Introduction of LTE Protocol Compare with LTE and LTE-Advanced Conclusion

3 What is LTE ? In Nov. 2004, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) began a project to define the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cellular technology Higher performance Backwards compatible Wide applications 第三代合作夥伴計劃(英語:3rd Generation Partnership Project,即3GPP)是一個成立於1998年12月的標準化機構。目前其成員包括歐洲的ETSI、日本的ARIB和TTC、中國的CCSA、韓國的TTA和北美洲的ATIS。

4 History of LTE LTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standards. The goal of LTE was to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (digital signal processing) techniques and modulations. A further goal was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with significantly reduced transfer latency compared to the 3G architecture. The LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so that it must be operated on a separate wireless spectrum.

5 History of LTE(Cont’d)
LTE was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan in 2004, and studies on the new standard officially commenced in 2005. The LTE standard was finalized in December 2008, and the first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14, 2009 as a data connection with a USB modem. Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the world’s first LTE smartphone starting on February 10, 2011. On June 25th, 2013, Korea's SK Telecom announced the launching of LTE-Advanced services in Korea. [15] On June 26th, 2013, Samsung Electronics released an LTE-Advanced version of the Galaxy S4. [16] On July 18th, 2013, Korea's LG U Plus unveiled an LTE-Advanced network.[17] On August 18th, 2013, Philippines’ SMART Communications tests the LTE-Advanced network.[18] On November 5th 2013, two major carriers in the United Kingdom (Vodafone and EE) announced they would be holding LTE - A trials in the London area. On November 15th 2013, Telefonica and Vodafone have announced that they are testing LTE-Advanced in the German cities of Munich and Dresden

6 History of LTE(Cont’d)
Initially, CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival standards called UMB and WiMAX But all the major CDMA operators (such as Verizon, Sprint and MetroPCS in the United States, Bell and Telus in Canada, au by KDDI in Japan, SK Telecom in South Korea and China Telecom/China Unicom in China) have announced that they intend to migrate to LTE after all. The evolution of LTE is LTE Advanced, which was standardized in March Services are expected to commence in 2013.

7 Evolution of Radio Access Technologies
802.16m 802.16d/e LTE (3.9G) : 3GPP release 8~9 LTE-Advanced : 3GPP release 10+

8 LTE Basic Concepts LTE employs Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for downlink data transmission and Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access technique which has similar structure and performance to OFDMA A salient advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDM is the low Peak to Average Power (PAP) ratio : Increasing battery life

9 LTE Uplink (SC-FDMA)

10 Multi-Antenna Techniques

11 Generic Frame Structure
Allocation of physical resource blocks (PRBs) is handled by a scheduling function at the 3GPP base station: Evolved Node B (eNodeB) Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink)

12 Generic Frame Structure (Cont’d)
DwPTS field: This is the downlink part of the special subframe and its length can be varied from three up to twelve OFDM symbols. The UpPTS field: This is the uplink part of the special subframe and has a short duration with one or two OFDM symbols. The GP field: The remaining symbols in the special subframe that have not been allocated to DwPTS or UpPTS are allocated to the GP field, which is used to provide the guard period for the downlink-to-uplink and the uplink-to-downlink switch.

13 Resource Blocks for OFDMA
One frame is 10 ms consisting of 10 subframes One subframe is 1ms with 2 slots One slot contains N Resource Blocks (6 < N < 110) The number of downlink resource blocks depends on the transmission bandwidth. One Resource Block contains M subcarriers for each OFDM symbol The number of subcarriers in each resource block depends on the subcarrier spacing Δf The number of OFDM symbols in each block depends on both the CP length and the subcarrier spacing.


15 LTE Spectrum (Bandwidth and Duplex) Flexibility

16 LTE Downlink Channels The LTE radio interface, various "channels" are used. These are used to segregate the different types of data and allow them to be transported across the radio access network in an orderly fashion. Physical channels: These are transmission channels that carry user data and control messages. Transport channels: The physical layer transport channels offer information transfer to Medium Access Control (MAC) and higher layers. Logical channels: Provide services for the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer within the LTE protocol structure. Physical Channel,乘載上層資訊並送出訊號給UE或EnodeB,簡單的說就是將Resourse Block(RB)分配的機制,規定每一個RB要做為什麼用途,會介紹這個是為了延續上篇介紹的主題。

17 LTE Downlink Channels Paging Control Channel Paging Channel
Physical Downlink Shared Channel

18 LTE Downlink Logical Channels
UE: User Equipment RRC: Radio Resource Control

19 LTE Downlink Logical Channels
MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services

20 LTE Downlink Transport Channel

21 LTE Downlink Transport Channel

22 LTE Downlink Physical Channels

23 LTE Downlink Physical Channels

24 LTE Uplink Channels Random Access Channel CQI report
Physical Uplink Shared Channel Physical Radio Access Channel

25 LTE Uplink Logical Channels

26 LTE Uplink Transport Channel

27 LTE Uplink Physical Channels

28 LTE Release 8 Key Features (1/2)
High spectral efficiency OFDM in Downlink Single‐Carrier FDMA in Uplink Very low latency Short setup time & Short transfer delay Short hand over latency and interruption time Support of variable bandwidth 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz

29 LTE Release 8 Key Features (2/2)
Compatibility and interworking with earlier 3GPP FDD and TDD within a single radio access technology Efficient Multicast/Broadcast

30 Evolution of LTE-Advanced
Asymmetric transmission bandwidth Layered OFDMA Advanced Multi-cell Transmission/Reception Techniques Enhanced Multi-antenna Transmission Techniques Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-Advanced

31 Asymmetric Transmission Bandwidth
Voice transmission: UE to UE Asymmetric transmission Streaming video : the server to the UE (the downlink)

32 Layered OFDMA The bandwidth of basic frequency block is, 15 - 20 MHz
Layered OFDMA comprises layered transmission bandwidth assignment (bandwidth is assigned to match the required data rate), a layered control signaling structure, and support for layered environments for both the downlink and uplink.

33 Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission/Reception (CoMP)
The CoMP is one of the candidate techniques for LTE-Advanced systems to increase the average cell throughput and cell edge user throughput in the both uplink and downlink.

34 Enhanced Multi-Antenna Transmission Techniques
In LTE-A, the MIMO scheme has to be further improved in the area of spectrum efficiency, average cell through put and cell edge performances In LTE-A the antenna configurations of 8x8 in DL and 4x4 in UL are planned

35 Enhanced Techniques to Extend Coverage Area
Remote Radio Requirements (RREs) using optical fiber should be used in LTE-A as effective technique to extend cell coverage

36 Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-Advanced
Peak data rates up to 1Gbps are expected from bandwidths of 100MHz. OFDM adds additional sub-carrier to increase bandwidth

37 LTE vs. LTE-Advanced

38 Conclusion LTE-A helps in integrating the existing networks, new networks, services and terminals to suit the escalating user demands LTE-Advanced will be standardized in the 3GPP specification Release 10 (LTE-A) and will be designed to meet the 4G requirements as defined by ITU

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