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Where on the diagram would the following take place?

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Presentation on theme: "Where on the diagram would the following take place?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Where on the diagram would the following take place?
1. glycogenesis 2. gluconeogenesis 3. glycogenolysis Now explain each term. glycogenolysis gluconeogenesis glycogenesis

2 Continue with questions from last lesson. Extra info:
The hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that conducts blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. This blood is rich in nutrients that have been extracted from food, and the liver processes these nutrients; it also filters toxins that may have been ingested with the food. The liver receives about 75% of its blood through the hepatic portal vein, with the remainder coming from the hepatic artery proper. The blood leaves the liver to the heart in the hepatic veins.

3 What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

4 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar
What is diabetes? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar What does this video show? What do you know about diabetes? Some people are unable to regulate their blood glucose levels because their pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or their cells do not respond to it properly. This is called diabetes. Teacher notes This slide accompanies slide 9 of the presentation Controlling Blood Sugar. Video credit: © David M. Whiskeyman, Shutterstock.com It is important for the doctor and patient to work together to control the disease, as every patient’s needs are slightly different. They need to prevent blood glucose getting too high or too low, as both can be dangerous. Diabetes is a serious condition, but if it is carefully managed diabetics can live normal lives. There are two main types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2. 4

5 Glucose as an energy source
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar Glucose as an energy source Glucose is a type of sugar used by the body to provide energy. Sometimes there is too much glucose in the blood, and sometimes there is not enough. What affects the level of blood glucose? eating causes blood glucose levels to rise vigorous exercise causes blood glucose levels to fall. The amount of blood glucose therefore needs to be regulated. How does the body do this? 5

6 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar
Blood glucose levels Blood glucose rises just after eating, but quickly returns to normal. Where does the sugar go, and why is it not left in the blood? normal after meal after vigorous exercise 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 blood glucose (mg/100cm3) Teacher notes The excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored, as explained on the next few slides. It is not left in the blood as high levels upset the osmotic potential of cells, which can be very dangerous. 6

7 The hormones of the pancreas
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar The hormones of the pancreas Blood glucose levels are controlled by the pancreas. pancreas If blood glucose levels are too high, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin. This makes the liver convert glucose into glycogen, which is stored in the liver and muscles. Teacher notes Before revealing the arrow and label, the students could be asked to find the pancreas in the diagram. The role of the pancreas in digestion might also be mentioned. This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway Science and Edexcel Science. If blood glucose levels are too low, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon. This makes the liver convert glycogen into glucose, and release it into the blood. 7

8 Maintaining a safe blood glucose level
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway Science and Edexcel Science. 8

9 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar
Key terms 9

10 The symptoms of diabetes
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar The symptoms of diabetes The lack of insulin control in a diabetic means that blood glucose levels can rise dangerously high after eating, which can cause cell damage. Symptoms of diabetes develop quickly and can be severe. Initial symptoms include: increased thirst, hunger and production of urine loss of weight, tiredness and nausea. Teacher notes The video slide Controlling Blood Sugar Video accompanies this slide. Photo credit: © siamionau pavel, Shutterstock.com Later symptoms include vomiting and abdominal pain. If untreated, diabetes can lead to coma and even death. 10

11 How does diabetes affect the body?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar Teacher notes Type 1 and 2 diabetes used to be called ‘early’ and ‘late onset’ respectively. These terms are used less these days, in part because the increase in childhood obesity has meant that people are developing type 2 diabetes earlier in life. 11

12 Use the information provided to fill in the table.
Use your knowledge and understanding from the passage, plus your textbooks and notes to answer the two questions.

13 2. too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy
2. too much sugar in the blood and not enough in the cells for energy. Affects water potential and cell stability in terms of structure by osmosis.

14 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar
Treating type 1 diabetes Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar Type 1 diabetes develops when the insulin-producing cells in a person’s pancreas are destroyed, and their body cannot produce enough insulin. This means that glucose builds up in their blood. Type 1 diabetes often develops in childhood. People with type 1 diabetes must inject themselves with insulin before they eat. This helps to keep their blood glucose at a safe level. The amount of insulin needed depends on how much the person eats and how active they are. Photo credit: © photomak, Shutterstock.com Teacher notes The more active a person is, the more glucose their body uses up, and the less insulin they need. Alternatively, diabetics who eat a lot without exercising will need to inject more insulin. This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway Science. The injection is usually into the subcutaneous fat – the fat that is stored directly beneath the skin. 14

15 Treating type 2 diabetes
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Controlling Blood Sugar Treating type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes develops when a person’s body becomes resistant to insulin. This type typically affects people over 40 years old, and accounts for 85–95% of people with diabetes. Most people with type 2 diabetes can manage their illness through diet and exercise. Physical activity will reduce the amount of glucose in the blood. Photo credit: © Maridav, Shutterstock.com Eating small, regular meals can stabilize blood glucose levels, and avoiding sugary foods can prevent blood glucose levels from rising. 15

16 If I am the answer, what is the question?
Islets of Langerhan Glycogen Liver Insulin Glucagon Thirsty, hungry, tired Early onset Obesity


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