# Intermediate Algebra 098A

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Intermediate Algebra 098A
Review of Exponents & Factoring

1.1 – Integer Exponents For any real number b and any natural number n, the nth power of b is found by multiplying b as a factor n times.

Exponential Expression – an expression that involves exponents
Base – the number being multiplied Exponent – the number of factors of the base.

Product Rule

Quotient Rule

Integer Exponent

Zero as an exponent

Calculator Key Exponent Key

Sample problem

more exponents Power to a Power

Product to a Power

Polynomials - Review Addition and Subtraction

Determine the coefficient and degree of a monomial
Objective: Determine the coefficient and degree of a monomial

Def: Monomial An expression that is a constant or a product of a constant and variables that are raised to whole –number powers. Ex: 4x xyz

Coefficient: The numerical factor in a monomial
Definitions: Coefficient: The numerical factor in a monomial Degree of a Monomial: The sum of the exponents of all variables in the monomial.

Examples – identify the degree

A monomial or an expression that can be written as a sum or monomials.
Def: Polynomial: A monomial or an expression that can be written as a sum or monomials.

Def: Polynomial in one variable:
A polynomial in which every variable term has the same variable.

Binomial: A polynomial containing two terms.
Definitions: Binomial: A polynomial containing two terms. Trinomial: A polynomial containing three terms.

The greatest degree of any of the terms in the polynomial.
Degree of a Polynomial The greatest degree of any of the terms in the polynomial.

Examples:

Objective Add and Subtract Polynomials

To add or subtract Polynomials
Combine Like Terms May be done with columns or horizontally When subtracting- change the sign and add

Evaluate Polynomial Functions
Use functional notation to give a polynomial a name such as p or q and use functional notation such as p(x) Can use Calculator

Calculator Methods 1. Plug In 2. Use [Table] 3. Use program EVALUATE
4. Use [STO->] 5. Use [VARS] [Y=] 6. Use graph- [CAL][Value]

Apply evaluation of polynomials to real-life applications.
Objective: Apply evaluation of polynomials to real-life applications.

Multiplication and Special Products
Intermediate Algebra 5.4 Multiplication and Special Products

Objective Multiply a polynomial by a monomial

Procedure: Multiply a polynomial by a monomial
Use the distributive property to multiply each term in the polynomial by the monomial. Helpful to multiply the coefficients first, then the variables in alphabetical order.

Law of Exponents

Multiply Special Products.
Objectives: Multiply Polynomials Multiply Binomials. Multiply Special Products.

Procedure: Multiplying Polynomials
1. Multiply every term in the first polynomial by every term in the second polynomial. 2. Combine like terms. 3. Can be done horizontally or vertically.

Multiplying Binomials
FOIL First Outer Inner Last

Product of the sum and difference of the same two terms Also called multiplying conjugates

Squaring a Binomial

Use techniques as part of a larger simplification problem.
Objective: Simplify Expressions Use techniques as part of a larger simplification problem.

Albert Einstein-Physicist
“In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.”

Intermediate Algebra –098A
Common Factors and Grouping

A number or expression written as a product of factors.
Def: Factored Form A number or expression written as a product of factors.

Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
Of two numbers a and b is the largest integer that is a factor of both a and b.

Can do two numbers – input with commas and ). Example: gcd(36,48)=12
Calculator and gcd [MATH][NUM]gcd( Can do two numbers – input with commas and ). Example: gcd(36,48)=12

Greatest Common Factor (GCF) of a set of terms
Always do this FIRST!

Procedure: Determine greatest common factor GCF of 2 or more monomials
1. Determine GCF of numerical coefficients. 2. Determine the smallest exponent of each exponential factor whose base is common to the monomials. Write base with that exponent. 3. Product of 1 and 2 is GCF

Factoring Common Factor
1. Find the GCF of the terms 2. Factor each term with the GCF as one factor. 3. Apply distributive property to factor the polynomial

Example of Common Factor

Factoring when first terms is negative
Prefer the first term inside parentheses to be positive. Factor out the negative of the GCF.

Factoring when GCF is a polynomial

Factoring by Grouping – 4 terms
1. Check for a common factor 2. Group the terms so each group has a common factor. 3. Factor out the GCF in each group. 4. Factor out the common binomial factor – if none , rearrange polynomial 5. Check

Example – factor by grouping

Ralph Waldo Emerson – U.S. essayist, poet, philosopher
“We live in succession , in division, in parts, in particles.”

Intermediate Algebra 098A
Special Factoring

a difference of squares a perfect square trinomial a sum of cubes
Objectives:Factor a difference of squares a perfect square trinomial a sum of cubes a difference of cubes

Factor the Difference of two squares

Special Note The sum of two squares is prime and cannot be factored.

Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials

Factor: Sum and Difference of cubes

Note The following is not factorable

Factoring sum of Cubes - informal
(first + second) (first squared minus first times second plus second squared)

Intermediate Algebra 098A
Factoring Trinomials of General Quadratic

Objectives: Factor trinomials of the form

Factoring 1. Find two numbers with a product equal to c and a sum equal to b. The factored trinomial will have the form(x + ___ ) (x + ___ ) Where the second terms are the numbers found in step 1. Factors could be combinations of positive or negative

Factoring Trial and Error
1. Look for a common factor 2. Determine a pair of coefficients of first terms whose product is a 3. Determine a pair of last terms whose product is c 4. Verify that the sum of factors yields b 5. Check with FOIL Redo

Factoring ac method 1. Determine common factor if any 2. Find two factors of ac whose sum is b 3. Write a 4-term polynomial in which by is written as the sum of two like terms whose coefficients are two factors determined. 4. Factor by grouping.

Example of ac method

Example of ac method

Factoring - overview 1. Common Factor 2. 4 terms – factor by grouping
3. 3 terms – possible perfect square 4. 2 terms –difference of squares Sum of cubes Difference of cubes Check each term to see if completely factored

Isiah Thomas: “I’ve always believed no matter how many shots I miss, I’m going to make the next one.”

Intermediate Algebra 098A
Solving Equations by Factoring

If a and b are real numbers
Zero-Factor Theorem If a and b are real numbers and ab =0 Then a = 0 or b = 0

Example of zero factor property

Solving a polynomial equation by factoring.
Factor the polynomial completely. Set each factor equal to 0 Solve each of resulting equations Check solutions in original equation. Write the equation in standard form.

Example – solve by factoring

Example: solve by factoring

Example: solve by factoring
A right triangle has a hypotenuse 9 ft longer than the base and another side 1 foot longer than the base. How long are the sides? Hint: Draw a picture Use the Pythagorean theorem

Solution Answer: 20 ft, 21 ft, and 29 ft

Example – solve by factoring

Example: solve by factoring

Example: solve by factoring

Example: solve by factoring