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**Solving for the Unknown: A How-To Approach for Solving Equations**

Chapter Five McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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**Learning unit objectives**

LU 5-1: Solving Equations for the Unknown Explain the basic procedures used to solve equations for the unknown. List the five rules and the mechanical steps used to solve for the unknown in seven situations; know how to check the answers. LU 5-2: Solving Word Problems for the Unknown List the steps for solving word problems. Complete blueprint aids to solve word problems; check the solutions.

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Terminology Expression – A meaningful combination of numbers and letters called terms. Equation – A mathematical statement with an equal sign showing that a mathematical expression on the left equals the mathematical expression on the right. Formula – An equation that expresses in symbols a general fact, rule, or principle. Variables and constants are terms of mathematical expressions.

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**Solving Equations for the Unknown**

Left side of equation Right side of equation Equality in equations A + 8 58 Dick’s age in 8 years will equal 58.

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**Variables and Constants Rules**

If no number is in front of a letter, it is a 1: B = 1B; C = 1C If no sign is in front of a letter or number, it is a +: C = +C; 4 = +4

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**Solving for the Unknown Rule**

Whatever you do to one side of an equation, you must do to the other side.

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Opposite Process Rule If an equation indicates a process such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, solve for the unknown or variable by using the opposite process.

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**Opposite Process Rule A + 8 = 58 - 8 - 8 A = 50 Check 50 + 8 = 58**

A = 50 8 is subtracted from both sides of equation to isolate variable A on the left. Check = 58

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**Equation Equality Rule**

You can add the same quantity or number to both sides of the equation and subtract the same quantity or number from both sides of the equation without affecting the equality of the equation. You can also divide or multiply both sides of the equation by the same quantity or number (except zero) without affecting the equality of the equation.

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**Equation Equality Rule**

7G = 35 G = 5 By dividing both sides by 7, G equals 5. Check 7(5) = 35

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**Multiple Processes Rule**

When solving for an unknown that involves more than one process, do the addition and subtraction before the multiplication and division.

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**( ) Multiple Process Rule H + 2 = 5 4 -2 -2**

H = 3 H = 4(3) H = 12 1. Move constant to right side by subtracting 2 from both sides. ( ) 4 2. To isolate H, which is divided by 4, we do the opposite process and multiply 4 times both sides of the equation. Check = 5 4 3 + 2 = 5

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Parentheses Rule When equations contain parentheses (which indicates grouping together), you solve for the unknown by first multiplying each item inside the parentheses by the number or letter just outside the parentheses. Then you continue to solve for the unknown with the opposite process used in the equation. Do the addition and subtraction first; then do the multiplication and division.

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**Parentheses Rule 5(P - 4) = 20 5P – 20 = 20**

1. Parentheses tell us that everything inside parentheses is multiplied by 5. Multiply 5 by P and 5 by 4. 5P = 40 P = 8 2. Add 20 to both sides to isolate 5P on left. 3. To remove 5 in front of P, divide both sides by 5 to result in P equals 8. Check 5(8 - 4) = 20 5(4) = 20 = 20

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Like Unknown Rule To solve equations with like unknowns, you first combine the unknowns and then solve with the opposite process used in the equation.

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**Like Unknown Rule 4A + A = 20 5A = 20**

To solve this equation: 4A + 1A = 5A. Thus, 5A = 20. To solve for A, divide both sides by 5, leaving A equals 4. Check 4(4) +4 = 20 = 20

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**Solving Word Problems for Unknowns**

1) Read the entire problem. Read again if necessary! 3) Let a variable represent the unknown. Y = Computers 4) Visualize the relationship between the unknowns and variables. Then set up an equation to solve for the unknown(s). 4Y + Y = 600 2) Ask: “What is the problem looking for?” 5) Check your results to ensure accuracy.

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**Solving Word Problems for the Unknown**

Blueprint aid

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**Solving Word Problems for the Unknown**

ICM Company sold 4 times as many computers as Ring Company. The difference in their sales is 27. How many computers of each company were sold? Cars Sold: ICM Ring 4C -- C 27 4C C 4C -- C = 27 3C = 27 C = 9 Ring = 9 computers ICM = 4(9) = 36 computers Mechanical Steps Check = 27

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