Presentation on theme: "Technician License Course Chapter 3 Operating Station Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1Technician License Course Chapter 3 Operating Station Equipment Power Supplies and BatteriesHandheld TransceiversRF Interference (RFI)
2Power Supplies Most modern radio equipment runs off 12 volts DC Household current is 120 volts ACPower supplies convert 120 volts AC to 12 volts DCImportant!! Humans Nervous system does not respond to voltages less that 32 volts (Hence cars are ~12.6 – 15V for a 50% safety margin)13.8 volts DC is the common voltage you will seeThis is the charging voltage for motorized vehicles
3Power Supply Ratings Voltage and Current Continuous duty – how much current can be supplied over the long termIntermittent duty – how much surge current can be supplied over the short termRegulation – how well the power supply can handle rapid current changes
4Types of Power Supplies LinearTransformersHeavy (physically)Heavy duty currentExpensiveSwitchingElectronics instead of transformersLight weight and smallNot as robustLess expensiveExamples of the different kinds of supplies would be helpful to illustrate the differences.
5Inverters and Generators Inverters convert DC into ACSquare, triangle, sine-wave invertersGenerators create ACGas poweredVarious voltage and current ratingsSpecial precautionsThese are generally emergency or portable power sources.The three kinds of inverters offer different voltage quality (and of course different prices) and are used for different kinds of appliances. The sine-wave inverter provides the highest quality AC but at a price. The sine-wave inverter would be the inverter of choice for powering computer and radio equipment.Give the students some examples of the type of precautions needed when working with gas powered generators.
6Batteries Create current through a chemical reaction Battery types Made up of individual cells (approximately 1.5 volts per cell) connected in series or parallelBattery typesDisposableRechargeableStoragePower capabilities rated in Ampere-hoursAmps X timeExamples of the different kinds of batteries will help illustrate this point. Discuss how the different kinds of batteries are used.
7Battery Charging Some batteries can be recharged, some cannot Use the proper charger for the battery being chargedBatteries will wear out over timeBest if batteries are maintained fully chargedOver-charging will cause heating and could damage the batterySome batteries (lead-acid) will release toxic fumes during charging so require ventilation
8Handheld Transceivers Single, dual and multi-band versions (with increasing cost and complexity)Some have expanded receiver coverage (wide-band receive)Pick up WX, Aircraft, MarineVery portable and self-containedInternal microphone and speakerRubber duck antennaBattery poweredSpend some time discussing how to get the most performance out of the HT (hold the HT vertical, speak across the mic, not into the mic, etc.)Also make sure that you cover that the rubber duck antenna actually has negative gain when compared to other antennas, that the trade-off for the convenience of a small, flexible antenna is reduced performance.
9Nice to have handheld accessories Extra battery packsDrop-in, fast chargerExtended antennaExternal microphone and speakerHeadset
10Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Un-wanted, un-intentional signals from some electronic device that interferes with radio wave receptionYou can prevent creating RFI by operating your transmitting equipment properlyUse minimum powerGood station groundingPoint out that RFI can come from virtually any electronic device from overhead power lines, to electric can openers, to computers and TV sets.
11RFI Mitigation Filters High –generally on the receive side Filters attenuate (reduce) interfering signals – but do not totally eliminate themHF use Low pass to keep harmonics from being transmittedHigh –generally on the receive sideLow – generally on the transmit sideBand-pass – used within most radio equipmentEmphasize that filters can only attenuate the offending signal, they can not eliminate the signals. Discuss briefly the different kinds of filters and how they might be used. Have a high pass filter on hand that might be inserted into the feed line of a TV set to mitigate interfering signals and discuss how it might be installed.
12Types of RFIDirect detection – offending signals get into the electronics circuits to cause interferenceOverload – strong signal that overwhelms the weaker, wanted signal – Shuts down the AGC so all that is heard is the interferrenceHarmonics – multiples of the offending signal that coincided with the wanted signalDiscuss briefly with the students these basic types of RFI, and how they might be able to distinguish between them. At the same time, discuss some techniques they might use to mitigate the effects of the interference.Direct detection usually affects consumer electronic devices (telephones and audio equipment). Can be mitigated by proper manufacture, installation, shielding, filters, ferrite bead chokes, etc. Actually very hard to deal with and generally not the fault of the ham radio operator, but try to convince your neighbor of that who just spent hundreds of dollars on their new equipment.Overload – generally is a problem in fringe reception areas of TV signals. Not as much a problem now days with satellite and cable TV. Usually the problem can be mitigated by reducing transmitter power or filtering.Harmonics – generally are a symptom of poor transmitter design or operation.
13Cable TV InterferenceUsually the result of broken shielding somewhere in the cableLoose connectionsBroken connectionsCorroded connectionsUsually solved by proper cable maintenance by cable supplierIf the subscriber is a legitimate subscriber
14Noise SourcesElectrical arcs (motors, thermostats, electric fences, neon signs)Power linesPoor insulatorsMotor vehicle ignitionsMotor vehicle alternatorsSwitching power suppliesComputers, networks, and TV setsDiscuss with the students other sources of interfering noise and give them techniques on how to seek out the source of the noise. In many cases of the fixed noise, simply turning off the potentially offending appliance will help identify the source. Power line noise mitigation is the responsibility of the power company. Motor vehicle noise is generally short lived unless it is coming from the hams vehicle. Grounding and filtering in many of these cases will mitigate the noise.
15Dealing with RFI Make sure you operate your equipment properly Good Station GroundingGood Antenna ConnectionGood FeedlineEliminate interference in your own home firstSwitch circuit breaker & see if the noise goes awayClap On. Clap OffX Control DevicesEntertainment Devices
16Dealing with RFI Take interference complaints seriously Make sure that you’re really not the cause (demonstrate that you don’t interfere within your own home)Offer to help eliminate the RFI, even if you are not at faultConsult ARRL RFI Resources for help and assistance
17What the Rules SayRFI from and to unlicensed devices is the responsibility of the users of such devicesBottom line – if your station is operating properly, you are protected against interference complaintsBUT – be a good neighbor because they may (probably) not be familiar with Part 15 rules and regulationsDiscuss with the students that though the law is probably on their side, their neighbors will not understand that and they will hold the ham responsible for the interference. It takes diplomacy to deal with RFI complaints!!!!!
18Review Questions T4C06 through 10, T5A05, T0A10 and 11 T7A03, T9B07 and 08, T9A04T5A07 and 07, T3D02, 03, 07, and 11, T5D01 through 04, 06 through 10, T7A05, T9B03
19Next Time Communicating with other hams Read 4-1 through 4-19 Making ContactsRead 4-1 through 4-19