PLANT PARTS AND ADAPTATIONS
Mrs. Herrema 2012
Water Lilies note the shape and size of the leaf
Water Lilies note the shape and size of the leaf. The water lily grows in a shaded area.
Water Lilies Water-lilies are rooted in soil in bodies of water, with leaves and flowers floating on the water surface. The leaves are round, large and flat to absorb as much of the sunlight as possible. The lily uses the sunlight to make food.
Cacti are distinctive and unusual plants which have adapted to extreme arid environments. Their features conserve water. Their stems have expanded into green structures containing the chlorophyll necessary for life and growth, while the leaves have become the spines for which cacti are so well known. Compare the size of the leaf on a cacti that sits in the sun to the water lily that is in the shade.
All living organism need nitrogen
All living organism need nitrogen. Plants make proteins from nitrogen in the soil. Animals get the nitrogen they need to make proteins when they eat plants.
In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen is changed into forms of nitrogen that plants can use.
They are returned to the soil in two ways: Through animal wastes. When plants and animals die, a bacteria releases nitrates and ammonia from decaying proteins. The forms are: Nitrates And Ammonia
Carbon Dioxide-Oxygen Cycle
In the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle, all land and marine organisms take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide as a product of turning food into energy.
Carbon dioxide is poisonous to animals and humans
For millions years the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle stayed in balance because of the processes of plants and animals. Now we burn trees and coal which puts tons of carbon dioxide into the air. Burning fuels such as natural gas and petroleum in cars, trucks and airplanes, add even more carbon dioxide to the air. We cut down forests to use for human needs. So there are fewer trees to use the added carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is poisonous to animals and humans
What are three things we can do to help keep the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle in balance?
1. 2. 3.
What do Plants need to live?
One of the main Materials used to Make food. One of the main Materials used To make food. Help plants grow. Provides the Energy for photosynthesis
Parts of a vascular plant
How do leaves, stems, and roots help plants live?
Roots absorb NUTRIENTS and WATER through tiny parts called root hairs. Roots anchor the plant in the soil, provide support for the stem, and store food. They are usually below ground and lack nodes, shoots and leaves. ROOT TYPES There are two major types of root systems in plants. Taproot systems have a stout main root with a limited number of side-branching roots. Examples of taproot system plants are nut trees, carrots, radishes, parsnips and dandelions. The second type of root system, fibrous, has many branched roots. Examples of fibrous root plants are most grasses, marigolds and beans.
Fibrous roots and a tap root
Some plants store extra food and water to help them survive brief changes in their environments. Most plants cannot make food during the winter.
Prop roots Some tree roots, called prop roots, keep trees that grow in loose, wet soil, from being blown over by the wind.
STEMS The stem is the main trunk of a plant. Buds and shoots develop on stems. Stems provide structure and support for leaves, flowers and fruits. They also carry nutrients and water. In some cases, stems also store food. The xylem and phloem are located in the stem. They are found only in vascular plants.
How water and nutrients flow through the xylem and phloem
The xylem fills with material to become the “wood” of the tree.
LEAVES Leaves are lateral outgrowths from the stem. The main function of leaves is food production for the plant. Leaves have evolved into many shapes and sizes, reflecting adaptations to the environment. Leaves are most commonly flat, broad and green. This maximizes their function of absorbing sunlight and transforming it into food. Leaves have a protective layer on the outer surface of their cells called the cuticle (Q-tick-uhl). This protective layer reduces the exchange of water and gases and prevents some disease-causing organisms from entering. The cuticle is made up of a waxy substance called cutin (Q-tin). The cuticle helps prevent DEHYDRATION.
Transpiration For leaves to release and take in gases (carbon dioxide, oxygen) and water vapor, the leaf surface has tiny openings called STOMATA (stow-MAH-tah). Guard cells surround the stomata and push it open and closed.
Stomata is used for transpiration
Tropisms are a plant’s responses to stimuli that help a plant survive.
Gravitropism is the plants response to gravity. This makes sure the plants roots grow downward. Just think what would happen when seeds are planted upside down.
Phototropism Plants grow toward light. This response to light is called phototropism. Plants have the ability to measure the amount of sunlight they need. Just think what would happen if plants could not move their leaves toward the sun.
Other Tropisms This plant responds to the stimulus of touch.
As you can see, Responses to stimuli are adaptations that help plants survive.
Parts of a leaf
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