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Chapter Six Market Structures: Why market competition affects you every time you shop!

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Six Market Structures: Why market competition affects you every time you shop!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Six Market Structures: Why market competition affects you every time you shop!

2 Rule of Business: The more competitive the industry, the more the consumer benefits.

3 Rule of Capitalism: Encourage competition between firms in an industry (market). The consumer benefits: $$$ Variety of products Lots of information about products

4 Two types of markets are highly competitive.
Perfect competition Monopolistic competition

5 Perfect Competition According to Adam Smith – the ideal market structure. Buyers and sellers compete fully and directly under the laws of supply and demand.

6 Conditions for Perfect Competition
Many buyers and sellers act independently. Sellers offer identical products. Buyers are well informed about products. Sellers can enter or exit the market easily.

7 Many Buyers and Sellers:
No single buyer or seller has enough power to control demand, supply or prices. Think farming!

8 Identical Products Corn is corn. Apples are apples.
Buyers choose one product over another primarily based on price – not on unique characteristics.

9 Informed Buyers Buyers are knowledgeable about products.
Can compare products easily.

10 Easy Market Entry and Exit
For sellers to compete perfectly, they must be able to enter a profitable market - or exit an unprofitable market – EASILY. THINK FARMING!

11 Monopolistic Competition
Differs in ONE key respect. Sellers offer DIFFERENT, rather than identical, products.

12 Monopolistic Competition
Sellers seek to have monopoly-like power by selling a “unique” product. MOST COMMON MARKET STRUCTURE in the US!

13 Monopolistic Competition
Like perfect competition – Supply / Demand laws apply. Many sellers and buyers acting independently. Buyers are well informed. Easy to enter / exit the market.

14 Product Differentiation – what makes Monopolistic Competition DIFFERENT.
Sellers in monopolistic competition try to DIFFERENTIATE – point out differences – between their products and competitors.

15 Nonprice Competition Sellers compete on a basis other than price.
Compete through advertising and emphasis on brand names.

16 Nonprice Competition The main goal of product differentiation is to increase profits. Convince the buyer to make decision based on nonprice factors – not price alone.

17 Examples of Monopolistic Competition:
Telephone companies Airlines Clothing makers Hamburger joints Sodas

18 Imperfectly Competitive Markets
Oligopolies Monopolies

19 Oligopolies There are a few large sellers that control the production of the good or service. There are only a few large sellers. Sellers offer identical or similar products. Other sellers cannot enter the market easily.

20 Oligopolies: Few large sellers
A market (industry) is considered an oligopoly when three or four firms control 70% of the market’s total output.

21 Oligopolies: Identical or similar products
Each seller has a large share of the overall sales in the market. So much at stake – less likely to take risks. Not offering new products.

22 Oligopolies: Difficult entry and exit in the market
New sellers cannot easily enter the market. Big start-up costs Govt. regulation Consumer loyalty to established products

23 Oligopolies at work: legal and efforts to control prices.
Nonprice competition to differentiate the products. Efforts of Kelloggs, General Mills, and Post (80% of the market) create numerous brand names to look like they compete.

24 Oligopolies at work: legal means to control price
Interdependent Pricing: Base prices on the pricing actions of competitors. Not only similar products – but similar prices.

25 Price leadership The most common form of interdependent pricing.
Largest sellers “set” the price of the product and the competitors follow. Control the price of the product. Oligopolies and Monopolies are Price Setters – not price takers as in perfect competition / monopolistic competition.

26 What happens when competing companies don’t follow along in oligopolies?

27 Price Wars: Opportunity Benefits: prices can benefit consumer
Opportunity Costs: Sellers lose money and if the price war is on for long – might be forced out of the market. Unemployment up Even less competition in the market

28 Oligopolies Dark Side: COLLUSION
Sellers secretly agree to set production levels and prices for their products. ILLEGAL! Oligopoly behaves like a monopoly. Higher prices and lower quality for consumer.

29 Oligopolies Dark Side: Cartels
Sellers openly organize a system of price setting and market sharing. Illegal in the US.

30 Infamous Cartels De Beers Diamonds OPEC
Creates scarcity by buying and stockpiling stones from other producers. OPEC Been to the gas pump lately?

31 The good news about cartels
Often unstable and short lived. Greed makes members break ranks and try to sell more. Price wars break out.

32 The ultimate bad guy: Monopolies
There is a single seller No close substitute goods are available Other sellers cannot enter the market easily Prices UP and quality of products DOWN because NO COMPETITION!

33 Types of Monopolies Natural Geographic Technological
REMEMBER: Economies of Scale Geographic Technological Patents: seller gets 17 year monopoly Copyright protects written works and art Government: Public goods

34 Monopolies at Work Monopoly markets have a great deal of control over prices.

35 Three Things Limit Monopoly Control Over Setting Prices
Consumer Demand Potential Competition Government Regulation

36 Market Regulation Government was laissez-faire with business until close to the 20th century.

37 The Era of Big Business Rockefeller, Carnegie, JP Morgan-
Smaller companies were forced out of business or taken over by bigger businesses. TRUSTS = Big Business

38 Antitrust Legislation – Govt. takes on Big Business
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) said govt. could monitor and regulate big business. Used to break up Standard Oil’s monopoly in 1911. Today the company is called EXXON of EXXON MOBIL.

39 Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) – prohibited specific unfair business practices. Price Discrimination Offering different prices to different customers under the same circumstances.

40 Federal Trade Commission
Since 1914 – the government’s “police” who investigate business.

41 Monopoly Breakups AT&T (1982) Standard Oil (1911) Microsoft????

42 Is Microsoft a Predatory Monopoly?
What “proof” is there that Microsoft is a predatory monopoly? What should be done?

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