Presentation on theme: "Chap 11, Sect. 3-Water Pollution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chap 11, Sect. 3-Water Pollution ObjectivesCompare point-source pollution and nonpoint-source pollutionClassify water pollutants by five typesExplain why groundwater pollution is difficult to clean upDescribe the major sources of ocean pollution, and explain the effects of pollution on ecosystemsDescribe six major laws designed to improve water quality in the U.S.
2 DE State Science Standard 8/GLEs Evaluate decisions about the use of resources in one country and how these decisions can impact the diversity and stability of ecosystems globally.Analyze ways in which human activity (i.e., producing food, transporting materials, generating energy, disposing of waste, obtaining fresh water, or extracting natural resources) can affect ecosystems and the organisms withinRelate a chemical’s properties to its accumulation within organisms, such as PCBs in the fatty tissues of fish.Explain how biomagnification has led to unsafe food supplies, such as mercury accumulation in tuna.Analyze how an understanding of biomagnification has led to the regulation of chemical use and disposal.
3 Bellringer - Ecolog Define the term water pollution Is a cup of coffee polluted water?Is a muddy stream polluted?
4 Water PollutionWater Pollution: The introduction of chemical, physical, or biological agents into water that degrade water quality and adversely affect the organisms that depend on the water.Two underlying causes of water pollution: Industrialization and rapid human population growth.
5 Developed vs Developing Developed Countries: Major cause of water pollution is industrializationDeveloping Countries:Major cause of water pollution is sewage and agricultural runoff, spreading diseases.
6 Point-source Pollution Point-source Pollution: pollution discharged from a single source.Examples: leaking septic tank, leaking storage lagoons for polluted waste, unlined landfills, leaking underground storage tanks that contain chemicals or fuels such as gasoline, polluted water from active or abandoned mines, water discharged by industries, public waste-water treatment plants
7 Non-point-source Pollution Non-point-Source Pollution: comes from many different sources that are often difficult to identify.Examples: chemicals added to road surfaces (salt and deicing agents), water runoff from city and suburban streets that may contain oil, gasoline, animal feces, and liter
8 Non-point-source Examples Pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer from residential lawns, golf courses, and farmlandFeces and agricultural chemicals from livestock feedlotsPrecipitation containing air pollutantsSoil runoff from farms and construction sitesOil and gas from personal watercraft
9 Non-point Pollution Con’t 96% of all polluted bodies of water in the United States were contaminated by non-point sourcesControlling non-point-source pollution depends to a great extent on public awareness of the effects of activities such as spraying lawn chemicals and using storm drains to dispose of used motor oil
10 Non-point Pollution Con’t Two cycle engines (Jet Skis, snowmobiles) are estimated to leak millions of gallons of unburned fuel into ecosystems20-25% of fuel in two cycle engines fails to combust, and it flushes into water as raw fuel vapor.
11 Pollutant Types and Sources Pathogens: disease causing organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms.Mostly non-point sources; sewage or animal feces, livestock feedlots, and poultry farms; sewage from overburdened wastewater treatment plants
12 Pollutant Types and Sources Organic Matter: animal and plant matter remains. Feces, food waste, and debris from food processing plantsMostly non-point sources
13 Pollutant Types and Sources Organic chemicals: pesticides, fertilizers, plastics, gasoline and oil, and other products made from petroleumMostly non-point sources: farms, lawns, golf courses, roads, wastewater, unlined landfills, and leaking underground storage tanks
14 Pollutant Types and Sources Inorganic chemicals: acids, bases, salts, and industrial chemicalsPoint-sources and non-point sourcesIndustrial waste, road surfaces, wastewater, and polluted precipitation
15 Pollutant Types and Sources Heavy Metals: lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenicPoint sources and non-point sourcesIndustrial discharge, unlined landfills, some household chemicals, and mining processes.Heavy metals can also occur naturally in some groundwater
16 Pollutant Types and Sources Physical Agents: heat and suspended solidsPoint sources and non-point sourcesHeat from industrial processes and suspended solids from soil erosion
17 Pollutant Sources – U.S. Point Sources 23 million septic-tank systems 190,000 storage lagoons for polluted waste9,000 municipal landfillsAbout 2 million underground storage tanks containing pollutants such as gasolineThousands of public and industrial wastewater treatment plants
18 Pollutant Sources – U.S. Non-point Sources Highway construction and maintenance, including eroding soil and toxic chemicalsStorm-water runoff including oil, gasoline, dog feces, and liter from city and suburban streetsPesticides from cropland50 million tons of fertilizer applied to crops, lawns and golf courses every year10 million tons of dry salt applied to highways for snow and ice control every year
19 DioxinsDioxin refers to a group of chemicals that contain chlorine, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. They are a byproduct of chemical processes such as paper bleaching.Dioxins may cause liver and nerve damage, genetic, reproductive, and immune system problems, and many other problemsAccording to the EPA, dioxins are some of the most toxic chemicals known to science, and they are the most dangerous environmental pollutants in North America -DuPont Edgemoor
20 WastewaterWastewater: water that contains waste from homes and industryWastewater Treatment Plants filter and treat wastewater to make the water clean enough to return to river or lake
21 WastewaterMost of the wastewater from homes contains biodegradable material that can broken down by living organisms( animal and plant waste, paper, and soap)Some household and industrial wastewater and some storm-water runoff contains toxic substances that cannot be removed by standard treatment
22 Sludge Sludge: The solid material that remains after treatment. When sludge contains dangerous concentrations of toxic chemicals, it must be disposed of as hazardous wasteNon-hazardous sludge can be used as fertilizer.
24 EutrophicationEutrophication: when lakes and slow moving streams contain an abundance of nutrients. When organic matter (leaves and animal waste) builds up in a body of water it will begin to decay and decompose. This process of decomposition uses up oxygen. As oxygen is used up, the types of organisms that live in the water change over time
25 EutrophicationPlants take root in fertile sediment at the bottom of water. As more plants grow the waters begin to fill in forming a swamp or marsh
26 Artificial Eutrophication Eutrophication caused by humans is known as Artificial EutrophicationInorganic plant nutrients such as phosphates and nitrogen enter the water from sewage and fertilizer runoff.Phosphates from laundry detergents can also cause eutrophication
27 Artificial Eutrophication Phosphates can cause the growth of large algal blooms,large floating mats of algae. As the algae dies and decompose, most of the dissolved oxygen is used and fish and other organisms suffocate in the oxygen depleted water. ( fish kills)
28 Thermal PollutionWhen the temperature of a body of water increases thermal pollution can result.As water temperature increases, oxygen levels decrease and can cause massive fish killsThermal pollution can occur when power plants and other industries use water in their cooling systems and then discharge the warm water into a lake or stream
29 Groundwater Pollution Pollutants usually enter groundwater when polluted water percolates down from the Earth’s surfacePesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, and petroleum products, as well as leaking underground tanks, are common groundwater pollutantsOther sources include: septic tanks, unlined landfills, and industrial waste lagoons
31 ppm –(parts per million) Parts per million water contamination is usually measured in parts per million (ppm)If the concentration of a pollutant is 5 ppm, there are 5 parts of the pollutant in 1 million parts of water.If the concentration of gasoline is 3 ppm in 650,000 L of water, how many liters of gasoline are in the water?
33 Groundwater Clean-upGroundwater pollution is world’s most challenging environmental problemEven if groundwater pollution were stopped tomorrow, some ground water would remain for generations to come.Groundwater recharges are very slow, sometimes taking hundreds to thousands of years
34 Ocean PollutionApproximately 85% of ocean pollution, including oil, toxic wastes, and medical wastes, come from activities on landMost activities that pollute oceans occur near the coasts, where much of the world’s population livesSensitive coastal ecosystems (coral reefs, estuaries, and coastal marshes) are most effected by pollution
35 Cruise Ship Discharges Eco-FactCruise Ship DischargesIn one year, ships dump almost 7 billion kg of trash into the oceans, about 75% from cruise shipsAccording to most international law, cruise ships are allowed to dump non-plastic waste, including untreated sewage into the oceans
36 Oil SpillsEach year approximately 37 million gallons of oil from tanker accidents is spilled into the oceansTanker oil spills only account for about 5% of oil pollution in the oceansMost of the oil that pollutes the oceans comes from cities and towns
37 Oil SpillsEvery year, as many as 200 million to 300 million gallons of oil enter the ocean from no-point sources on landThat’s almost 10 times the amount of oil spilled by tankersThe road runoff from a coastal city with a population of 5 million in one year could contain as much as a tanker spill
38 Water Pollution and Ecosystems Many pollutants accumulate in the environment because they do not decompose quicklyBiomagnification: Each organism along the food chain stores store pollutants in their tissue. So, at each level of the food chain, the level of pollutants increases.Top of food chain accumulates most toxins
39 Anti-Pollution Legislation In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in the United States.The stated purpose of the act was to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters”Goal: to make all surface water clean enough for swimming and fishing by 1983
40 Anti-Pollution Legislation This goal was not achieved. The percentage of lakes and rivers that are fit for swimming and fishing has increased by 30%Many toxic metals are now removed from wastewater before the water is discharged
41 Anti-Pollution Legislation 1972: Clean Water Act: goal of making all surface water safe for swimming and fishing by 1983 – 30% achieved1972 (Amended 1988) Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act: Empowered the EPA to control the dumping of sewage and toxic chemicals in U.S. waters
42 Anti-Pollution Legislation 1975: Safe Drinking Water Act: (Amended 1996): introduced programs to protect groundwater and surface water from pollution, strengthened public “right-to know” laws
43 Anti-Pollution Legislation 1980: Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act ( Superfund act): Makes owners, operators, and customers of hazardous waste sites responsible for the cleanup of the sites
44 Anti-Pollution Legislation 1987: Water Quality Act: Supported state and local efforts to clean polluted runoff. Established loan funds for new wastewater treatment plants, and created programs to protect major estuaries
45 Anti-Pollution Legislation 1990: Oil Pollution Act: Attempts to protect U.S. waterways from oil pollution by requiring that oil tankers in U.S. waters be double-hulled by 2015.