How Much Time is Spent Cleaning by the Pros? A LOT
Goals for Today Understand the Principles of Cleaning –Theory –Physico-Chemical Interactions Discuss the Key Sites and Actions in Cleaning –CCPs (Critical Control Points) –Fermentation Management/Controlled Infection Present the Specifics in Use –Types of Products Out There
Some Definitions Cleaning: Removing Soil and/or Biofilm Sanitizing: Log 3 Reduction (99.9%) of Microorganisms in System Disinfection: Log 5 Reduction (99.999%) of Microorganisms in System Sterilizing: Complete Elimination of Life
The Components of Clean Chemical Action Time Temperature Mechanical Action
Big Effects for Wine Makers Chemical Action Time Temperature Mechanical Action
Physico-Chemical Reactions Wetting –Responsible for water getting between soils and substrates. –Often called the peel-up effect. Deflocculation –Performed action of alkali, silicates and agitation. –Bulky solids are broken into smaller pieces and easily removed. Suspension –Detergents, alkalies, and silicates hold particles in suspension to prevent redeposition and easier removal.
Physico-Chemical Reactions Dissolution –Water soluble soils such as sugars and starches are removed by water and the compounds that aid in this process. Emulsification –Fats and oils are broken into small globules which are suspended in the washing solution. –Performed by detergents and alkalies. Neutralization –Much of the soil is acidic and alkaline wash componds removes it by altering its properties
Physico-Chemical Reactions Suspension –Once soils are broken from the substrate, suspension is necessary to allow rinsing. Oxidation –Some cleaning compounds will oxidized/decolorize stains that are left behind on wood and plastic surfaces.
Is Sterility a Must? We dont Need Sterility –Vintners yeast competes easily with wild yeasts, fungus, mold, and bacteria– especially at the lower pHs that we usually have in wine. We dont Want Sterility –Sometimes wines may benefit from something extra… Brettanomyces, perhaps? A little lactic sourness?
Using What Were Learning What basic rules should you follow? Where are your critical points? How should you vary your methods? What chemicals should you use? What equipment should you use?
Basic Rules Clean everything BEFORE you use it. And then sanitize. –Even new equipment Clean everything AFTER you use it. Right after. Now. –Bottles, too! Clean the winery premises, not just the equipment, on a regular basis. Keep the winery free of clutter. Watch for pests (bacteria, mold, wild yeast, rodents, etc.), remove them, and prevent their return. Deal with pomace IMMEDIATELY.
Some Areas of Concern General Environment of the Winery Storage Areas –Equipment –Fermenters –Bottles –Additives/Ingredients Cellar
Tools of the Trade Water –Hose with a nozzle –Jet Blaster (manual or faucet/hose mounted) Brushes (many) –Long handled –Bendable –Soft for plastic, stiff for wood A Stand to drain Hoses, Bottles, Fermenters, Carboys…
Generic Chemicals for Cleaning and Sanitation TypeDoseNotes Chlorine Bleach1 Tbsp/gal; 2 tsp/5 gal Difficult to rinse and may impart off-flavors and aromas; is deactivated by organic soil Citric Acid3 Tbsp/galNeutralizes alkalinity from other cleansers and helps to activate MBS Trisodium Phosphate1 Tbsp/galEffective against organic soils but can cause minerals to precipitate as scale Soda Ash0.25c/galEffective no-frills cleaning compound Sodium Metabisulfite3 Tbsp/galVery good must treatment; questionable product when used alone Sodium Hydroxide1 tsp/5 galVery effective; very caustic; very hazardous and difficult to rinse Ammonia1.5 Tbsp/galDifficult to rinse, but very effective on removing labels; stinks
Formulated Chemicals for Cleaning and Sanitation TypeDoseNotes Straight-A, B-Brite, PBW 1-2 Tbsp/galAlkaline products containing percarbonate; formulated specifically for this task One Step, Bio-San1 Tbsp/galOxidizing agents that are somewhat effective in cleaning Chlorinated Cleaners1 tsp/galEffective cleansers that should not be used on wood or some plastics Iodophor1 Tbsp/5 galSanitizer only; color is not as good an indicator of strength as is thought Dishwashing Detergent1 Tbsp/galEffective, but only use unscented versions MBS/Citric Acid8oz/1oz/galVery effective sanitizer with some cleaning effects; strong SO 2 release may be hazardous to some people
Special Cases: Barrels Theres no good way to deal with old barrels that have gone off… –Chemicals will either taint the wood or extract essence. Of course, the latter is preferable. But here are some ideas. –Treat barrels right Dont let them dry out. Store with a MBS/citric acid solution (2 oz/2 oz/5 gal water) Clean the outside as well as the inside! –Recover with a percarbonate based cleaner (1 Tbsp/gal), let sit 24 hours, rinse, then rinse with citric acid (0.5 tsp/gal).
Special Cases: TeCA and TCA (poly-Chloroanisoles) Compounds that cause musty off-flavors and aromas in finished wine Generated by the use of chlorine bleach in cleaning and sanitizing operations –Chlorine reacts with phenols present in must soils and pomace to create chlorophenols –Chlorophenol metabolization by mold produces pCA. Flavor threshold is about 5 parts per trillion
THE END (Any Questions?) Thanks to: WinePress.US Joel Sommer Terry Neve Pat Cuthbert Jay Spence Ed Slonaker Jeff Wingo All you guys