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Bradycardia & Tachycardia

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Presentation on theme: "Bradycardia & Tachycardia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bradycardia & Tachycardia
Ms. Lalith Sivanathan Bradycardia & Tachycardia

2 Objectives Recognize signs and symptoms of symptomatic bradycardia
Recognize causes and treatment for symptomatic bradycardia Describe indications for TCP and doses of drugs used to treat bradycardia: atropine, dopamine and epinephrine Recognize signs and symptoms and treat symptomatic bradycardia Recognize signs and symptoms and treat tachycardia

3 Rhythm for bradycardia
Sinus bradycardia First degree AV block Second degree AV block Type I (Wenckeback / mobitz I) Type II ( Mobitz II) Third degree AV block

4 Symptomatic bradycardia
Patient have heart rates in the normal sinus range but these rates are inappropriate or insufficient for them. This is called functional or relative bradycardia (for eg. A heart rate of 70/min is too slow for a patient in cardiogenic shock. A symptomatic bradycardia exists clinically when 3 criteria are present The heart rate is slow The patient has symptoms The symptoms are due to the slow heart rate.

5 Signs and symptoms Symptoms Signs
Chest discomfort or pain, shortness of breath Decreased level of consciousness weakness, fatigue, light – headedness, dizziness or syncope Signs Hypotension, drop in BP on standing (orthostatic hypotension) Diaphoresis, pulmonary congestion, frank congestive heart failure or pulmonary edema Bradycardia related frequent premature ventricular complexes or VT

6 Management A Maintain patent airway B
Assist breathing as needed; give oxygen in case of hypoxemia; monitor oxygen saturation C Monitor blood pressure and heart rate; obtain and review 12-lead ECG; establish IV access D Conduct a problem focused history and physical examination; search for and treat possible contributing factors

7 If patient has poor perfusion secondary to bradycardia
Give atropine as first line treatment Atropine 0.5mg IV – may repeat to a total dose of 3 mg If atropine is ineffective Transcutaneous pacing Or Dopamine 2 to 10 mcg/kg per minute (chronotropic or heart rate dose) Epinephrine 2 to 10 mcg/min

Indications Hemodynamically unstable bradycardia Symptomatic Sinus bradycardia Mobitz type II Second degree AV block Third degree AV block Precautions TCP is contraindicated in severe hypothermia and not recommended for asystole Conscious patients require analgesia for discomfort Do not assess the carotid pulse to confirm mechanical capture; electrical stimulation causes muscular jerking that may mimic the carotid pulse.

9 Steps to perform TCP Step Action 1
Place pacing electrodes on the chest according to package instructions 2 Turn the pacer ON 3 Set the demand rate to approximately 60/min. This rate can be adjusted up or down (based on patient clinical response) once pacing is established 4 Set the current milliampered output 2 mA above the dose at which consistent capture is observed (safety margin)

10 Unstable Tachycardia Unstable tachycardia exists when the heart rate is too fast for the patient’s clinical condition and the excessive heart rate causes symptoms or an unstable condition because the heart is Beating so fast that cardiac output is reduced. This can cause pulmonary edema, coronary ischemia and reduced blood flow to vital organs Beating ineffectively so that coordination between atrium and ventricles or the ventricles themselves reduces cardiac output

11 Rhythms for unstable tachycardia
Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Reentry supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) Monomorphic VT Polymorphic VT Wide complex tachycardia or uncertain type

12 Symptoms and signs Hypotension Altered mental status Signs of shock
Ischemic chest discomfort Acute heart failure

13 Management Look for signs of increased work of breathing (tachypnea or intercostal, suprasternal retractions) Give oxygen, if indicated and monitor oxygen saturation Obtain an ECG to identify the rhythm Evaluate the blood pressure Establish IV access Identify and treat reversible causes.

14 If the patient is unstable but has a pulse with regular uniform wide complex VT (monomorphic VT)
Treat with synchronized cardioversion and an initial shock of 100 J monophasic waveform) If there is no response to the first shock increasing the dosage in a step wise pattern is reasonable Arrhythmic with a polymorphic QRS appearance (polymorphic VT) such as torsades de pointes will usually not permit synchronization. If patient has polymorphic VT Treat as VF with high energy unsynchronized shocks ( defibrillation doses)

15 When to use synchronized shocks
Unstable SVT Unstable atrial fibrillation Unstable atrial flutter Unstable regular monomorphic tachycardia with pulses When to use unsynchronized shocks For a patient who is pulseless For a patient demonstrating clinical deterioration (in prearrest) such as those with severe shock or polymorphic VT, when you think a delay in converting the rhythm will result in cardiac arrest When you are unsure whether monomorphic or polymorphic VT is present in the unstable patient Should the unsynchronized shock cause VF (occurring in only a very small minority of patients despite the theoretical risk), immediately attempt defibrillation

16 Synchronized cardioversion
Sedate all conscious patients unless unstable or deteriorating rapidly Turn on the defibrillator (monophasic or biphasic) Attach monitor leads to the patient and ensure proper display of the patient’s rhythm. Position adhesive electrode (conductor) pads on the patient Press the SYNC control button to engage the synchronization mode. Look for markers on the R wave indicating sync mode.

17 6. Adjust monitor gain if necessary until sync markers occur with each R wave 7. Select the appropriate energy level 8. Announce to team members: “charging defibrillator – stand clear” 9. Press the CHARGE button 10. Clear patient when the defibrillator is charged 11. Press the SHOCK button 12. Check the monitor. If tachycardia persists, increase the energy level (joules) Activate the sync mode after delivery of each synchronized mode after delivery of synchronized shock.

18 STABLE TACHYCARDIA Rhythms for stable tachycardia
Narrow QRS complex (SVT tachycardias) Sinus tachycardia Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter AV nodal reentry Wide QRS comples tachycardias Monomorphic VT Polymorphic VT Regular or irregular tachycardia

19 Narrow QRS with regular rhythm
Attempt vagal maneuvers Valsalva maneuver or carotid sinus massage will terminate about 25% of SVTs Give adenosine If SVT does not respond to vagal maneuvers: Give adenosine 6 mg as a rapid IV push in a large (eg anticubital) vein over 1 sec. follow with a 20 ml saline flush and elevate the arm immediately If SVT does not convert within 1 to 2 mins, give a seond dose of adenosine 12 mg rapid IV push following the same procedure above

20 Summary Recognize signs and symptoms of symptomatic bradycardia
Recognize causes and treatment for symptomatic bradycardia Describe indications for TCP and doses of drugs used to treat bradycardia: atropine, dopamine and epinephrine Recognize signs and symptoms and treat symptomatic bradycardia Recognize signs and symptoms and treat tachycardia

21 Thank you….

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