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Instructional Methods How should we teach? Created by Wallace Hannum © 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Methods How should we teach? Created by Wallace Hannum © 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Methods How should we teach? Created by Wallace Hannum © 2010

2 BF Skinner Principles –use behavior objectives –task analysis simple to complex –break tasks into small so they can be successful –use frequent cues & shaping –reinforce appropriate behavior –reinforce behavior using variable schedules Teaching methods –use programmed instruction to accommodate difference in rates –use computer-assisted instruction or worksheets with answers for immediate feedback –use tutoring with frequent student response

3 RM Gagne Principles –use prerequisites according to task analysis –classify outcomes into different domains –employ different conditions of learning –break down tasks to simple skills –use mastery learning –Use learning hierarchy that shows prerequisite relationships –define & sequence inst according to learning hierarchy –use 9 instructional events that mimic how we process information Teaching methods –direct instruction models –computer based or web-based instruction that follows the instructional events model

4 DP Ausubel Principles –learning has to be meaningful to students –teacher can create only potential meaningful materials –understand cognitive structure because instruction follows cognitive structure –cognitive structure organized from more abstract to more specific –find out what student knows before teaching –start with advance organizer –relate advance organizer to students’ knowledge to stimulate cognitive structure –present big concepts first – model instruction after cognitive structure –work top down (progressively differentiate/integratively reconcile) –relate new information to students’ cognitive structure to facilitate anchoring –do not use discovery (waste of time) –have students practice over time Teaching methods –direct instruction –lecture and discussion

5 JS Bruner Principles –discovery learning – guided, not free-for-all –opposed to direct teaching/facts –teach big ideas –build on prior knowledge –language is important -- let children talk –using manipulatives and images –actively engage students –use three stages (enactive/iconic/symbolic) Teaching methods –discovery learning –project approach – children identify interest, teacher provides materials to support interests –teacher is facilitator

6 A Bandura Principles –use appropriate models (admire/like them) –self-efficacy (cycle) use confidence building exercises, let students be successful –teach skills to evaluate & self-regulate –base curriculum on student interests –connect student interests to what they are learning –use appropriate models (admire/like them) –teach skills of observation and self-evaluation Teaching methods –collaborative learning –demonstration –peer learning

7 L Vygotsky Principles –keep students working within their ZPD –ask questions according to level; higher order –provide for student to have an active role in education –focus on problem solving –provide scaffolding –know children & families (assessment) Teaching methods –discussion, active dialogue –independent reading followed by discussion –tutoring

8 Summary The theorists differ regarding principles for instruction and specific teaching methods Some theorists focus on teacher-centered instruction while others focus on learner-centered instruction For some theorists students have a very active role during instruction in constructing the knowledge while others see the students as passively receiving the instruction

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