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Philosophy and The Search for Truth. Philosophy is perhaps the most “open” of all subjects. Its primary goals are clarity of expression and thought, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Philosophy and The Search for Truth. Philosophy is perhaps the most “open” of all subjects. Its primary goals are clarity of expression and thought, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophy and The Search for Truth

2 Philosophy is perhaps the most “open” of all subjects. Its primary goals are clarity of expression and thought, and its chief components are reason, insight, contemplation, and experience. No question or point of view is off-limits. The best philosophers-no matter what their personal beliefs- defer to the most compelling arguments regardless of their origins. Such important philosophers as Plato, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, John Stuart Mill, Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Martin Heidegger, to name a few, radically questioned and revised their own thinking over the course of their lives, reacting to what they saw more compelling evidence.

3 The history of philosophy is a living thing. It is still being written. The ultimate issue is not who said it first, but whether it is true and worthwhile. Wisdom, it seems, transcends color, gender, social class, and ethnicity.

4 Does it ever occur to you that there’s no way to settle the kinds of philosophical issues we have been discussing because they’re only about beliefs and opinions? Perhaps you believe that “ What’s right for someone else might not be right for me. It’s best to just let others believe whatever they want, and I’ll believe whatever I want”. This kind of thinking is a form of “mellow” relativism.

5 The belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer. In other words, absolute (universal) knowledge of the truth is impossible-one opinion is as good as another. Relativists can also point to endless differences of opinion in topics such as: 1.Abortion 2.The right to die 3.Immigration policies 4.Greatest rock and roll singer or basketball or football player. With all this diversity of opinion, the relativist wonders how we can ever agree on who is really wise.

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7 The chief(main) goal of wisdom is a fundamental understanding of reality as it relates to living a good life. Wisdom is reasonable and practical, focusing on the true circumstances and character of each individual. Is a good judgment about complex situations. Wisdom involves reflection, insight, a capacity to learn from experience, and some plausible(acceptable) conception(idea) of the human condition. Unlike forms of knowledge that require formal education and specialized intelligence, wisdom has been associated with experience. Yet, clearly, age cannot guarantee wisdom, nor can intelligence. Wisdom has also been associated with personal virtue far more than knowledge has.

8 Philosophers generally agree that knowledge is some form of true belief. Questions the arise as to how to distinguish true belief from mistaken belief; and, as you might expect, different philosophers give different answers involving the roles of reason, perception, experience, intuition and social agreement in this process. Philosophers also distinguish between theoretical and practical knowledge.

9 Theoretical: Involves the accurate compilation and assessment of factual and systematic information and relationships. Practical: consists of skills needed to do things like play piano, remove a tumor or bake a cake. Depending on their nature, evaluating knowledge claims involves logical argumentation, scientific experiments and predictions, or demonstration of some skillful performance.


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