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Fundamentals of EtherNet/IP Networking Technology

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1 Fundamentals of EtherNet/IP Networking Technology
Plant-wide Benefits of EtherNet/IP Seminar This seminar will focus on increasing your competitive position in a global environment with real time information for greater business agility and as a result discover the benefits of a single network architecture utilizing EtherNet/IP.

2 What you will learn Trends in Industrial Network Convergence
Technology enablers and business drivers Fundamentals of EtherNet/IP What it is, capabilities and features Networking basics breaking down the lingo and acronyms models and standards Multidiscipline control and information applications Representative plant-wide network architectures EtherNet/IP advantages which enables and drives convergence of control and information

3 Agenda Industrial Network Trends
EtherNet/IP – Single Industrial Network Technology OSI Reference Model Layers 1 - 7 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures Additional Information

4 Industrial Networks Trends
Open networks are in demand Broad availability of products, applications and vendor support for Industrial Automation and Control System (IACS) Network standards for coexistence and interoperability of industrial automation devices Convergence of network technologies Reduce the number of disparate networks in an operation and create seamless information sharing throughout the plant-wide / site-wide architecture Use of common network design, deployment and troubleshooting tools across the plant-wide / site-wide architecture; avoid special tools for each application Better asset utilization to support lean initiatives Common network infrastructure assets, while accounting for environmental requirements Reduce training, support, and inventory for different networking technologies Future-ready – maximizing investments and minimizing risks Support new technologies and features without a network forklift upgrade These trends are not new. These trends have been occurring for some time now. IACS terminology is from the International Society for Automation (ISA). In the joint collaboration between Rockwell Automation and CISCO Systems, we have adopted this joint terminology. In today’s current global economic conditions, there has definitely been a reduction in training budgets. In industrial automation control systems, the lifespan of a control system can be 10, 15 or even 20 years. Future proofing network design is critical to support future network expansion and the use of new technologies. Reduce Risk Simplify Design Speed Deployment

5 Industrial Applications Convergence Industrial Network Trends
Information I/O Drive Control Safety Applications Process Power Control High Availability Energy Management Multi-discipline Industrial Network Convergence Safety I/O Single Industrial Network Technology Camera Controller VFD Drive HMI I/O Plant/Site Instrumentation Controller Drive Network Safety Network I/O Network Plant/Site Network Disparate Network Technology There’s been a lot of evolution in this application space. The first applications for industrial Ethernet had to do with things like being able to program and troubleshoot industrial automation and control system controllers over the industrial Ethernet. Examples would be things like operator interface, data acquisition, as well as supervisory control and data acquisition - SCADA. Since the original start of industrial Ethernet applications, there has been an exponential enhancement to standard Ethernet itself, specifically the reduction in network latency and jitter. The term latency is the delay when one device transmits and another device receives on the network. Jitter is the variance in that delay. I/O Control itself requires low latency and jitter which standard Ethernet provides. We see the evolution from information only to I/O control over industrial Ethernet. Again, there has been a continued evolution of industrial application. The I/O Control has led to the capability of safety control. Now, we are seeing safety applications like machine safety, utilizing things like safety control, safety I/O, as well as drive systems, all on the common network infrastructure: automation, standard I/O control, and safety applications. In applying other industry standards like the IEEE 1588 precision time protocol for time synchronization, now we are seeing the deployment of motion control on standard Ethernet for applications such as packaging and converting. The overall trend here is to have a multidiscipline control and information platform which is enabling an industrial network convergence: information, I/O control, safety application, time synchronization as well as motion control.

6 Network Technology Convergence Single Industrial Network Technology
Convergence of Industrial Automation Technology (IAT) with Information Technology (IT) Information Technology Intelligent Motor Control Discrete Control Process Control Wide deployment of EtherNet/IP in manufacturing triggered migration from the traditional 3-tier network model to a converged Ethernet model. Convergence has not flattened the network model. Segmentation of functions, geographic areas, and security for domains of trust requires a multi-tier model. The traditional 3-tier network model evolved during the early days of Ethernet. Characteristics such as collision domains, half-duplex and 10Mbps limited Ethernet usage in production control applications. Proprietary, vendor-specific industrial networks proliferated early on, until organizations like ODVA began promoting a Common Industrial Protocol (CIP). By dividing a network by function and geographic area into smaller local area networks (LAN), the 3-tier network model provides natural segmentation. This lessens the impact of traffic management and security. By connecting devices such as drives and robots with a controller, a device-level network controls, configures, and collects data from these intelligent devices. A device-level network in one area does not typically interact with other device-level networks. By acting as a backbone for device-level networks, control networks interlock controllers and provide connectivity to supervisory computers. A gateway maps information from the manufacturing systems to the enterprise systems. The manual, store-and-forward mapping mechanism required significant implementation and support efforts. The naturally information-enabled, converged Ethernet model eliminates the need for dedicated gateways. Although the technology has converged, the model has not flattened. Data access from anywhere at anytime presents a new challenge. Manufacturers must protect their assets from both internal and external threats (people with good intentions that make mistakes and those wishing to inflict harm) because users typically know how to plug into Ethernet. No longer isolated in the manufacturing realm, industrial networks make manufacturing computing and controller assets susceptible to the same security vulnerabilities as their enterprise counterparts. plant-wide networking with Ethernet technology requires planning and structure. Establishing smaller LANs, to shape and manage network traffic as well as creating domains of trust that limit access to authorized personnel requires a multi-tier, segmented methodology. Multi-discipline Industrial Network Convergence

7 Enabling OEM Convergence-Ready Solutions
Industrial Network Design Methodology Network Technology Convergence - Collaboration of Partners Understand application and functional requirements Devices to be connected – industrial and non-industrial Data requirements for availability, integrity and confidentiality Communication patterns, topology and resiliency requirements Types of traffic – information, control, safety, time synchronization, drive control, voice, video Develop a logical framework (roadmap) Migrate from flat networks to structured and hardened networks Define zones and segmentation, place applications and devices in the logical framework based on requirements Develop a physical framework to align with and support the logical framework Deploy a Defense-in-Depth Security Model Reduce risk, simplify design, and speed deployment: Use information technology (IT) standards Follow industrial automation technology (IAT) standards Utilize reference models and reference architectures Avoiding Network Sprawl!! Enabling OEM Convergence-Ready Solutions Because Network Infrastructure Matters Developing a robust and secure network infrastructure requires protecting the integrity, availability and confidentiality of control and information data. Users should address the following when developing a network: Is the network infrastructure resilient enough to ensure data availability? How consistent is the data? Is it reliable? How is data used? Is it secure from manipulation? MANAGE / MONITOR IMPLEMENT AUDIT DESIGN/PLAN ASSESS 7

8 OSI 7-Layer Reference Model Single Industrial Network Technology
What makes EtherNet/IP industrial? Open Systems Interconnection Layer Name Layer No. Function Examples Application Layer 7 Network Services to User App CIP IEC 61158 CIP IEC 61158 Presentation Layer 6 Encryption/Other processing Session Layer 5 Manage Multiple Applications Transport Layer 4 Reliable End-to-End Delivery Error Correction IETF TCP/UDP Routers Network Layer 3 Packet Delivery, Routing IETF IP This is a representation of the 7 Layer Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model When we refer to Layers throughout the Converged plant-wide Ethernet Architectures collateral, we’re referring to this OSI Reference Model The term Layer is used for multiple definitions: Network terminology, such as Ethernet and IP vs. EtherNet/IP … Ethernet at Layer 2 and IP and Layer 3 … vs. EtherNet/IP … CIP .. Common Industrial Protocol at Layer 7, encapsulated within a TCP segment at Layer 4, encapsulated within an IP packet at Layer 3, encapsulated within a Ethernet frame at Layer 2, then sent out to the physical interface, or PHY to transmit down the media Device capabilities – Layer 2 device vs. Layer 3 device Network Services – example, Quality of Service (QoS) can exist at Layer 2 and/or Layer 3 …. can also use Layer 4 TCP and UDP port numbers to prioritize traffic The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from one networked device moves through a network medium to another networked device. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered the primary architectural model for intercomputer communications. The OSI model divides the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. A task or group of tasks is then assigned to each of the seven OSI layers. Each layer is reasonably self-contained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers. The following list details the seven layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model: Again, OSI is a conceptual model. Many networks and protocols, such as EtherNet/IP and CIP, use the 5-Layer TCP/IP model TCP – transmission control protocol UDP – user datagram protocol IP – internet protocol MAC – media access control TIA - Telecommunications Industry Association Switches IEEE 802.3/802.1 Data Link Layer 2 Framing of Data, Error Checking Physical Layer 1 Signal type to transmit bits, pin-outs, cable type Cabling TIA Physical Layer Hardening Infrastructure Device Hardening Common Application Layer Protocol 5-Layer TCP/IP Model

9 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Application Layers Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Data Transport Layers Layer 3 Network IETF IP Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 The top layers are commonly referred to as the application layers. The lower layers are commonly referred to as the data transport layers. Layer 1 Physical TIA

10 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP Local Area Network LAN Wide Area Network WAN Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 Both Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN) have similar implementations of Layers 1-3 … example: Ethernet LAN switch vs. ATM WAN switch Layer 1 Physical TIA

11 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Modbus TCP HTTP RTP Coexistence Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP IEEE 802.3/802.1 Layer 2 Data Link Due to the application of standards, we can support interoperability and coexistence with multiple applications layer protocols, both industrial and non-industrial. Non-industrial applications includes web based applications, the hypertext transfer protocol, IP telepathy with voice-over IP as well as video. It all coexists, functions, and reduces the overall costs. They all have a common network infrastructure which reduces the number of assets to be managed and the overall asset management costs. This makes EtherNet/IP future proof. It has the ability to add new industrial and non-industrial applications to a common network infrastructure. This leads to overall better asset utilization. Example of dual protocol stack Updated PLC-5E and SLC-5/05 support CIP (messaging only) and the original client server protocol / programmable controller communication commands Modern operating systems concurrently support IPv4 and IPv6 Layer 1 Physical TIA Coexistence Interoperability

12 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack
Sender Receiver Application - CIP Layer 7 Presentation - Null Layer 6 Session – Null Layer 5 Session - Null Transport – TCP/UDP Layer 4 Network – IP Layer 3 Network - IP Data Link - Ethernet Layer 2 Physical - Ethernet Layer 1 Encapsulation Decapsulation

13 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack
ControlLogix® Layer No. Layer Name Function Studio 5000 RSLinx® Classic Layer 7 Application CIP Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP IEEE 802.3/802.1 Layer 2 Data Link Common Industrial Protocol at Layer 7, encapsulated within a TCP segment at Layer 4, encapsulated within an IP packet at Layer 3, encapsulated within a Ethernet frame at Layer 2, then sent out to the physical interface, or PHY to transmit down the media Layer 1 Physical TIA Encapsulation Decapsulation

14 OSI Reference Model Protocol Stack Example - Encapsulation
The Ethernet message structure is a concatenation of protocols EtherNet/IP defines an Encapsulation protocol that sets up the TCP resources CIP Payload Encaps Layer No. Layer Name Layer 7 Application CIP TCP Header Segment Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session CIP TCP IP Header Packet Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Example of CIP encapsulation Network CIP TCP IP Enet Header Frame Layer 2 Data Link Layer 1 Physical Physical Layer Ethernet Frame is sent out the PHY

15 OSI Reference Model Physical Layer Independent
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 EtherNet/IP, which is standard Ethernet, uses standard Ethernet infrastructure devices and is physical layer independent, that is copper or fiber Physical Layer Independent Layer 1 Physical Copper

16 OSI Reference Model Physical Layer Independent
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 EtherNet/IP, which is standard Ethernet, uses standard Ethernet infrastructure devices and is physical layer independent, that is copper or fiber Physical Layer Independent Layer 1 Physical Fiber

17 OSI Reference Model Data Link Layer Independent
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application CIP Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport IETF TCP/UDP Layer 3 Network IETF IP Layer 2 Data Link IEEE Wi-Fi IEEE 802.3 Fiber Data Link Layer Independent EtherNet/IP, which is standard IP, is routable (Layer 3) and is data link layer independent, such as Ethernet, Wi-Fi, IEEE P1901 power line carrier Because EtherNet/IP uses standard Internet Protocol EtherNet/IP works with both local area networks and wide area network implementations. This helps enable overall plant wide information sharing. The portability across different standard network types provides more flexibility as well as agility and future proofing capabilities for overall EtherNet/IP. Layer 1 Physical Standard IP provides Portability and seamless Routing

18 OSI Reference Model Open Systems Interconnection
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application IE Protocol Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport Vendor Specific Layer 3 Network Vendor Specific Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 Industrial Ethernet solutions that don’t use standard TCP/IP protocol suite may experience challenges with: Multiple application layer protocol support – limits future proof capability Portability across multiple LAN times Routability, for seamless plant-wide information sharing Layer 1 Physical TIA Limits Portability and Routability, may require additional assets to forward information throughout the plant-wide / site-wide architecture

19 OSI Reference Model Open Systems Interconnection
Layer No. Layer Name Function Layer 7 Application IE Protocol Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport Vendor Specific Layer 3 Network Vendor Specific Layer 2 Data Link Vendor Specific Industrial Ethernet solutions that don’t use standard Ethernet will require specialized and specific network infrastructure devices. This increases the number of assets that need to be managed, increasing TCO – spares, tools, training Information sharing will require store-and-forward devices, with information mapping – all this adds cost to implement and maintain information sharing Layer 1 Physical TIA Non standard Ethernet, will require additional assets to connect into the plant-wide / site-wide architecture

20 OSI Reference Model Network Independent
Layer No. Layer 7 Layer 4 CIP is portable and network independent utilized in networks such as: EtherNet/IP – CIP/TCP/UDP/IP/Ethernet ControlNet DeviceNet CompoNet Enables seamless routing and bridging throughout CIP networks Common Industrial Protocol (CIP™) is an upper layer protocol and encompasses a comprehensive suite of messages and services for a variety of industrial automation applications, including control, safety, synchronization, motion, configuration and information. As a truly media independent protocol that is supported by hundreds of vendors around the world, CIP provides users with a unified communication architecture throughout the manufacturing enterprise. CIP is an object-oriented connection-based protocol that supports two basic types of messaging: Explicit Messaging and Implicit Messaging (commonly called I/O Messaging). Explicit Messaging Connections Explicit messaging connections provide generic, multi-purpose communication paths between two devices. These connections are often referred to as class 3 messaging connections. Explicit messages provide the typical request/response-oriented network communication. Each request is typically directed at a different data item. Explicit messages can be used for configuring, monitoring and troubleshooting. I/O Connections (Implicit Messaging) I/O connections provide dedicated, special purpose communication paths between a producing application and one or more consuming applications. The application-specific I/O data that moves through these connections is a fixed, structure and typically exchanged cyclically Layer 3 Network Independent Layer 2 Layer 1

21 OSI 7-Layer Reference Model Single Industrial Network Technology
Open Systems Interconnection Layer Name Layer No. Function Examples Application Layer 7 Network Services to User App CIP Presentation Layer 6 Encryption/Other processing Session Layer 5 Manage Multiple Applications Transport Layer 4 Reliable End-to-End Delivery Error Correction IETF TCP/UDP Routers Network Layer 3 Packet Delivery, Routing IETF IP Switches Data Link Similar sounding services exist at multiple layers within the stack .. Examples Security can be applied at Layers 1-4 and Layer 7 Resiliency exists at Layers 2 and 3 QoS exists at Layers 2 and 3, and also uses Layer 4 port numbers It’s important to know the proper context of the lingo being used Layer 2 Framing of Data, Error Checking IEEE /802.1 Physical Cabling Layer 1 Signal type to transmit bits, pin-outs, cable type TIA Similar sounding network devices, services and terms exist at Layer 2 (L2) and Layer 3 (L3) – e.g. Connections, QoS, Resiliency, Security

22 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Network Technology Convergence – Collaboration of Partners
Design and implement a robust physical layer Environment Classification - MICE More than cable Connectors Patch panels Cable management Noise mitigation Grounding, Bonding and Shielding Standard Physical Media Wired vs. Wireless Copper vs. Fiber UTP vs. STP Singlemode vs. Multimode SFP – LC vs. SC Standard Topology Choices Switch-Level & Device-Level Cable Selection ENET-WP007 Industrial Ethernet Physical Infrastructure Reference Architecture Design Guide Although not specifically addressed within Converged plant-wide Ethernet (CPwE) Architectures, developing a robust network infrastructure requires proper design and implementation of an industrial Physical layer. Physical media, layer 1, within the Cell/Area Zone is subjected to environmental and noise conditions not found in the enterprise. These conditions can impact availability and reliability of data, introducing latency and jitter. For additional information on physical media planning and installation, please refer to the ODVA EtherNet/IP Media Planning and Installation Manual MICE – Mechanical, Ingress, Chemical/Climatic, EMI STP - Shielded twisted pair UTP - Unshielded twisted pair SFP – small form-factor pluggable – optical transceiver LC – Fiber connector SC – Fiber connector ODVA Guide Fiber Guide ENET-TD003

23 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Media
Strategy: Make the call on best media for each level of your network

24 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Industrial Connectivity – 1585 Media and Fiber SFP
600V rated cable Small Form-factor Pluggable M12 Connectivity RJ45 Connectivity Cable Type Cable Application Conductor PB Riser Standard 8 (4 pair) TB Robotic Flex 4 (2 pair) or 8 (4 pair) MB Plenum Use in air ducts 8 (4 pair) M12 Connectivity: 1585D-M4TBJM-*, IP67 Applications. Only 2 pair cable option available. RJ45 Connectivity: 1585J-M4TBJM-*, In-Cabinet - IP20 Applications Cable Spools: 1585C-C4TB-S*, Custom Applications. Rockwell provides various cable options with various Field Attachable options Drilling down into connectivity aspects that can withstand the MICE environmental risks requires solutions that address not only sealed connectors but media that can withstand high stress and flex as well as higher voltage environments. Slide shows complete solutions from RA for copper connectivity

25 Baseband vs. Broadband Baseband Broadband
Single signal/frequency/channel over the cable Example – Ethernet Broadband Multiple signals/frequencies/channels over the cable simultaneously Traditional Definition Classic Broadband has a “carrier” for each channel Example - Cable TV, Wi-Fi, Power-Line Communications Current Definition Broadband Internet access – high speed Internet access

26 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Responsible for converting a frame, Layer 2 output, into signals to be transmitted over the physical network (electrical, light, RF) It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. LAN or WAN Physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, physical connectors Ethernet examples: 100Base-TX, 100Base-SX, 100Base-FX, 1000BASE‑SX, 1000BASE‑LX Other PHY examples: RS-232 T1, E1 ISDN 802.11 T1 – T-carrier line .. telephone line – leased line E1 – European T1 ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network – circuit-switched public switched telephone network (pstn) PHY – physical device or line interface, handles how data is moved to/from the wire

27 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Half versus Full Duplex transmission
Half Duplex One station transmits, other listens. While transmitting, you do not receive, as no one else is transmitting. If someone else transmits while you are transmitting, then a collision occurs Any “Receive-while-Transmit” condition is considered a collision NON-DETERMINISTIC Full Duplex (standardized in 802.3x) Transmit and receive at the same time. Transmit on the transmit pair, and receive on the receive pairs. No collision detection, backoff, retry, etc. Collision Free. No CS, no MA, no CD. Only relationship to Half Duplex is frame format & encoding/signaling method DETERMINISTIC CS – carrier sense MA – multiple access CD – collision detection

28 Layer 1 - Physical Layer Auto-Negotiation vs. Fixed Settings
Pulses detect Link speed and integrity (10/100/1000) Negotiate Full/Half Duplex Negotiate optional features (like MDIX) Often described as the “silent performance killer”. Auto-negotiation allows devices to select the most optimal way to communicate without the user having to configure the devices. In order to auto-negotiate both sides must be in the auto-negotiation mode …. manually configured port do not support the auto-negotiation protocol. While all 100 Mbps devices are required to support auto-negotiation, most legacy 10 Mbps devices do not. Auto-negotiation is not supported by fiber links. Best practice: Be consistent, do not mix auto-negotiate with fixed settings Verify the settings Duplex mismatch will slow communications MDIX feature detects and corrects for cross-over/straight thru cables

29 Layer 1 – Physical Layer EN2TR Example
RSLinx Classic Module Configuration EN2TR Webpage Network Settings Example screenshots of RSLinx Classic, RSLogix 5000 and built-in webpage of 1756-EN2TR … showing physical layer characteristics RSLogix 5000 EN2TR Properties

30 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Infrastructure – Active Devices
A repeater recreates the incoming signal and re-transmits it without noise or distortion that may have effected the signal as it was transmitted down the cable. Repeaters were available on legacy Ethernet to increase the overall length of the network and allow additional nodes to be added.

31 Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP)
Layer 1 – Physical Layer Infrastructure – Active Devices - Media Converters Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) Fiber link Fiber link Inexpensive physical layer devices should NOT be used on an industrial EtherNet/IP system Layer 2/Layer 3 switch approach is recommended for this issue for several reasons: Physical layer devices offer no buffering or advanced diagnostic features Physical layer devices like these are easily overrun by an EtherNet/IP system (and no buffering = lost data) Layer 2 devices have buffering, QoS, and other management features Even unmanaged switches have buffering and offer some protection against lost control data Use Caution!

32 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Infrastructure – Active Devices
Hub – Multiport Repeater A hub is at the center of a star topology and utilizes twisted pair or fiber cable to connect to devices. A hub broadcasts everything it receives on any channel out all other channels ….. Non-Deterministic Hub Ethernet 10 One device sending at a time All nodes share 10 Mbps Layer 1 Domain

33 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Topology - Linear
Layer 2 Access Link Layer 2 Access Switch Stratix 5700/8000 Layer 2 Interswitch Link/802.1Q Trunk Layer 2 Bridge Layer 3 Link Multi-Layer Switch Layer 2 and Layer 3 Stratix 8300 Layer 3 Router Stratix 5900 Linear Device-Level Linear Switch-Level

34 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Topology – Star and Redundant Star

35 Layer 1 – Physical Layer Topology - Ring
Device-Level Ring Switch-Level

36 Layer 2 – Data Link 802.3/802.1 – Ethernet – Local Area Network (LAN)
Pre SFD DA SA Type/Len Data (Payload) FCS Ethernet Frame Standard Ethernet frames Short frame - 64 bytes = 512 bits Long frame bytes = bits The Data Link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer. MAC (802.3) lower sub-layer controls how a device on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. Ethernet Media Access: CSMA/CD Layer 2 LAN and WAN Examples: 802.3, 802.5, Frame Relay, ATM, ISDN, MPLS (service providers) Layer 2 Protocols and Services Examples QoS – Quality of Service, VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network , Resiliency and Security The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link. Different data link layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics, including physical addressing, network topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow control. Physical addressing (as opposed to network addressing) defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer. Network topology consists of the data link layer specifications that often define how devices are to be physically connected, such as in a bus or a ring topology. Error notification alerts upper-layer protocols that a transmission error has occurred, and the sequencing of data frames reorders frames that are transmitted out of sequence. Finally, flow control moderates the transmission of data so that the receiving device is not overwhelmed with more traffic than it can handle at one time. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has subdivided the data link layer into two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). Pre – preamble SFD – start of frame delimiter DA – destination address – MAC SA – source address – MAC Type – EtherType – defines payload, example: IPv4 has a EtherType of 0x0800 Len – Length of frame FCS – frame check sequence MPLS – Multi-protocol Label Switching ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode

37 Layer 2 – Data Link Hardware Addressing
All devices on Ethernet communicate using the Ethernet address for the device. This address is sometimes referred to as the “hardware”, “burned-in” or “MAC address” (MAC stands for Media Access Controller). The hardware address is a unique (in the world) 6-byte address that is embedded in the circuitry of every device that sits on an Ethernet network. First 3-bytes identify a specific vendor. Every vendor of Ethernet products obtains their own unique address range Allen-Bradley’s is 00:00:BC:XX:XX:XX and 00:1D:9C:XX:XX:XX Example - 00:00:BC:03:52:A9 Note that each digit of the MAC address is a hex number (range 0-F) MAC Decoder

38 Layer 2 – Data Link LAN Transmission Methods
Unicast A method by which a frame is sent to a single destination. Multicast A technique that allows copies of a single frame to be passed to a selected subset of possible destinations. Example: C-CC-CC-CC (Cisco Discovery Protocol – CDP) Broadcast A frame delivery system that delivers a given frame to all hosts on the LAN. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

39 Layer 2 – Data Link LAN Transmission Method - Examples
One-to-one, individual transactions: Example – Logix Message Instruction, Logix P/C Connection UNICAST Controller One-to-all, single transaction: Examples – ARP, RSLinx Classic RSWho Browse BROADCAST Controller

40 Layer 2 - Data Link Bridging
A bridge is a device that isolates traffic between segments by selectively forwarding frames to their proper destination. It is transparent to the network and protocol independent. Similar to the repeater, the bridge isn’t used much any more, but more advanced devices which perform the bridging function are commonly used. Bridge Ethernet Ethernet Layer 2 Bridge Bridge Ethernet Token Ring EtherNet/IP DeviceNet Layer 3 Layer 7 Access Point Work Group Bridge Ethernet Ethernet

41 Layer 2 - Data Link Switching
Multi-port Bridge Ethernet has progressed exponentially since it was first introduced Cost Performance Shared Media vs. Switches Collisions vs. Determinism Multiple devices sending at the same time Requirements for an scalable industrial networking solution go even farther Layer 2 Domain Ethernet Switch Each node has 100 Mbps Switched Ethernet 100 Each node has 100 Mbps

42 Layer 2 - Data Link Switching
Multi-port Bridge Examples - Stratix 5700, 8000 and 6000 All ports are in the same broadcast domain Forwards frames based on the MAC address and a forwarding table CAM Table – content addressable memory Learns a station’s location by examining source address Sends out all ports when destination address is broadcast, multicast, or unknown address Forwards when destination is located on different interface Managed switches provide Layer 2 features, such as segmentation (VLAN tag), security, QoS, resiliency, etc. LAN HMI 8 6 I/O Drive 1 Controller

43 Layer 2 - Data Link Switching – Embedded Switch Technology
Linear Device-level Topology Port 1 Port 2 Ring Device-level Topology 2-port Embedded Switch

44 Layer 2 - Data Link Switching – Embedded Switch Technology
Note that the ControlLogix and CompactLogix L4x platforms can support multiple network interface cards (NICs) to segment network traffic. However, the CompactLogix 5370 platform is not capable of this method of network segmentation. The two ports of the CompactLogix 5370 PAC are part of an embedded switch, not a dual NIC. ENxTR ENxT’s CompactLogix 5370 ControlLogix ControlLogix Two port embedded switches allow data to pass through They are managed switches and mark QoS as well as calculate PTP Segmenting the network via multiple single port ENxT cards is only possible on the ControlLogix platform = ≠  PHY PHY = ≠ 

45 Layer 2 - Data Link Switching Options
Industrial versus COTS - Panel & DIN Rail Mounting vs. Table & Rack (e.g. 1RU) Managed versus Unmanaged Advantages Disadvantages Managed Switches Unmanaged Switches ODVA Embedded Switch Technology Loop prevention Security services Diagnostic information Segmentation services (VLANs) Prioritization services (QoS) Network resiliency Multicast management services More expensive Requires some level of support and configuration to start up No loop prevention No security services No diagnostic information No segmentation or prioritization services Difficult to troubleshoot No network resiliency support Inexpensive Simple to set up To reduce network latency and jitter, CPwE Architectures recommends segmenting and prioritizing network traffic. Segmentation reduces the impact of broadcast and multicast traffic. Segmentation also establishes domains of trusts, with simplifies management of security policies. Managed industrial Ethernet switches provide: Loop prevention Segmentation and prioritization to reduce latency and jitter for a converged control and information network Security features to protect manufacturing assets from internal and external security threats. Diagnostics to reduce MTTR and increase OEE. Resiliency options to maintain availability and integrity of control and information data. Cable simplification with reduced cost Ring loop prevention & Network resiliency Prioritization services (QoS) Time Sync Services (IEEE 1588 PTP Transparent Clock) Diagnostic information Multicast management services Limited management capabilities May require minimal configuration

46 Layer 2 – Data Link EN2TR Example
EN2TR Webpage MAC Address Example screenshots of RSLinx Classic and built-in webpage of 1756-EN2TR … showing data link layer characteristics RSLinx Classic EN2TR Diagnostics Ethernet Statistics EN2TR Webpage Ethernet Statistics

47 Layer 2 – Data Link EtherNet/IP is Standard
Pre SFD DA SA Type/Len Data (Payload) FCS Ethernet Frame Standard Ethernet frames Short frame - 64 bytes = 512 bits Long frame bytes = bits Standard MAC - 00:00:BC:XX:XX:XX & 00:1D:9C:XX:XX:XX Standard Transmission types: unicast, multicast and broadcast Standard EtherType Common – e.g. IPv4, ARP ODVA Embedded Switch Beacon - EtherType - 0x08E1 Standard Layer 2 services ….. example QoS – CoS

48 Layer 3 – Network Internet Protocol (IP) Packet
Version /Len ToS Byte Len ID Offset TTL Proto HCS IP SA IP DA Data IPv4 Packet This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this Layer, as well as addressing, and internetworking. IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway Layer 3 Protocol Examples: ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol IPsec – Internet Protocol Security IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol Routed protocol vs. Routing Protocol vs. Router Redundancy Layer 3 Services Examples QoS – Quality of Service, Resiliency, Security The network layer defines the network address, which differs from the MAC address. Some network layer implementations, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), define network addresses in a way that route selection can be determined systematically by comparing the source network address with the destination network address and applying the subnet mask. Because this layer defines the logical network layout, routers can use this layer to determine how to forward packets. Because of this, much of the design and configuration work for internetworks happens at Layer 3, the network layer. Version – IP version 4 (IPv4) or IP version 6 (IPv6) and Length of header ToS – Type of Service, Layer 3 QoS Len – length of packet ID – identification value for fragments Offset – location of fragment TTL – Time-to-Live Proto – encapsulated protocols such as ICMP, TCP, UDP HCS – header check sum IP SA – IP source address IP DA – IP destination address

49 Layer 3 – Network LAN Transmission Methods
Unicast A method by which a packet is sent to a single destination. Multicast A technique that allows copies of a single packet to be passed to a selected subset of possible destinations EtherNet/IP IP Multicast Address Range: Broadcast A packet delivery system that delivers a given packet to all hosts on the LAN.

50 Layer 3 – Network LAN Transmission Method – Examples
One-to-one, individual transactions: Example – Logix Message Instruction, Logix P/C Connection UNICAST Controller One-to-many, single transaction: Examples – IP Multicast, IP Surveillance, Webcast Streaming MULTICAST Controller

51 Layer 3 – Network Internet Protocol Address
Fixed or assigned from a pool? What type of server? If assigning from a pool Unique Network Identity Resolves Hostnames to IP addresses on the network Static vs. Dynamic network addressing – Will the ip address be the same each time this device joins the network or assigned one from a pool of available addresses? DHCP vs. Bootp – (Dynamic host configuration protocol) (bootstrap protocol) Most DHCP servers will support both (including the RSLinx utility) DHCP enhancements include: more configuration parameter options, rebinding/renewing of configuration with the server (lease period) A node’s unique Network identity consists of 3 parts (IP address, subnet mask, and network gateway) An IP address is a 32 bit identification of a node on the network. It is usually displayed in the easily read decimal form (4 octets separated by a “.”) It has 2 parts: network ID and the node #, the network ID will always be first and the unique node identification second Subnet or Network Mask – is what is used to determine which (of the 32 bits in the IP address) are part of the network ID and which are part of the unique node Identification. This is also used to determine the size of your network or subnetwork. (In the example above all 16 bits in the first 2 octets are part of the network ID and the last 16 bits or last 2 octets are the unique node identification) Gateway Address: This is how we would route packets from the local subnet, there would be one gateway for the subnet and anything that needs to leave the local subnet would be sent to that location. Domain Name: Label given to a logical grouping of nodes on a network (usually contains multiple parts separated by dots, the most specific part first down to most general part ie. BuildingID.Country.Company or google.com Hostname: is a label given to a specific node. The hostname and domain name make up the nodes “fully qualified identity” The Name servers will translate hostnames into network addresses for the transport. “User-Friendly” Name to identify a node on the network 51

52 Layer 3 – Network IP Addressing Schema
Option Description Advantages Disadvantages Static Hardware Devices hard coded with an IP Address Simple to commission and replace In large environments, can be burdensome to maintain Limited ranged of IP addresses and subnet Not all devices support Static via BOOTP Configuration Server assigns devices IP addresses Precursor to DHCP Supported by every device Requires technician to configure IP address/MAC address when a device is replaced Adds complexity and point of failure DHCP Server assigns IP addresses from a pool (NOT RECOMMENDED for industrial devices) Efficient use of IP address range Can reduce administration work load More complex to implement and adds a point of failure Devices get different IP addresses when they reboot DHCP Option 82 Server assigns consistent IP addresses from a pool (NOT RECOMMENDED) Efficient use of IP Address range Mixed environments may not work DHCP port-based allocation Automatically assign IP address per physical switch port Eases commissioning and maintenance in large environments Requires some maintenance and upkeep, on a per switch basis Static IP addresses are recommended for EtherNet/IP devices Hardware set via rotary switches Software set via BOOTP DHCP and DHCP Option 82 are not recommended DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Stratix 6000 and Stratix 8000/8300 supports DHCP port-based allocation – this is a good alternative to static IP addresses

53 Layer 3 – Network IP - Addressing
Internet Protocol Version 4 – IPv4 IP addresses are unique in the internet. This allows devices on networks throughout the world to be interconnected IP addresses are actually 32 bit address that are normally grouped into 4 bytes to make them easier to read. For example, an IP address of: Is actually: (binary 129) (binary 8) (binary 128) (binary 31) IP addresses are also broken down into classes. Each class of IP address identifies what part of the total IP address is used to identify the network it is on, and what part of the IP address is used to identify the end device on that network.

54 Layer 3 – Network IP - Addressing
The 4 classes of addresses are shown below: Class A 0 netid hostid Class B netid hostid Class C netid hostid Class D Used for multicast Class E Reserved Range of first byte values for the 4 classes: Class A 1 – 127 ex: Class B 128 – 191 ex: Class C 192 – 223 ex: Class D 224 – 248 ex:

55 Layer 3 – Network IP – Subnet Mask
Subnet Mask: Used to determine if a message is for a node on the local network, or it must be routed to a remote network. All nodes on the local network must have the same subnet mask. Subnet masks are also really 32 bit numbers that are represented as 4 bytes to make them easier to read. This subnet mask is actually: (binary 255) (binary 255) (binary 0) (binary 0) Wherever a “1” appears in the subnet mask, it is identifying that the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network address. The subnet mask is used to compare 2 IP addresses together to determine if they are on the same network.

56 Layer 3 – Network Private IP Addresses
Private addresses are special IP addresses that can be used by anyone. Information from devices with private addresses does not get routed on the Internet, so there is not a conflict with multiple enterprises using the same private addresses. Private addresses: Do not require registration or approval from an Internet registry. Greatly expand the number of available IP addresses to an enterprise Help address the problem of a lack of available IP addresses Private address ranges:

57 Layer 3 – Network IPv4 vs. IPv6 Packet
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IPv4 , 32-bit address, 4 bytes, 232 addresses IPsec is optional Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast QoS – Differentiated Services Code Point IPv6 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A, 128-bit address, 16 bytes, 2128 addresses IPsec is not optional Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast QoS - Flow classes and flow labels Address Scoping (reachability) Node-local …. example – loopback address Link-local …. local link only, automatically configured (based on MAC with IPv6 prefix) Global …. globally routable

58 Layer 3 – Network IP – Default Gateway
Gateways and Routers use the network portion of IP addresses to identify where networks are. Switch/route packets by IP Address. Stratix 8300 – Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching. A table is kept that tells the device which port a message should be transmitted out in order to get the message to the proper network. If the particular network is not directly attached to that device, it will simply forward the message to the next gateway or router in the path for further routing. Time-to-live (TTL) RA EtherNet/IP implementation for multicast – TTL=1 RA EtherNet/IP implementation for unicast – TTL=64 Routing Table Network Port 1 2 Default Gateway VLAN 17 Subnet /24 Controller 1 VLAN 10 Subnet /24 Controller 2

59 Layer 3 - Network Routing
Switch/route packets by IP Address. Stratix 5900 Extend network distance LAN, MAN, WAN Connect different LANs Broadcast control Multicast control, EtherNet/IP multicast not routable - TTL=1 Layer 3 features such as security, QoS, resiliency, etc. Make sure IT understands required protocols Is there a need to route to other subnets? Multicast traffic? Security or segmentation? WAN Default Gateway MAN – metropolitan area network … larger than an LAN, smaller than a WAN or internet …. Spans multiple buildings in a campus or city VLAN 17 Subnet /24 VLAN 10 Subnet /24

60 Layer 3 – Network Switching vs. Routing
WANs LANs Layer 3 - Router Connects WANs Scalable Pro: Rich set of routing protocols, applications and functionality: VPN, security, and multi-service capabilities Con: Path determination calculations slow down the router Building maps and giving direction based on Layer 3 characteristics Layer 3 - Switch Connects LANs, inter-VLAN routing Fixed Pro: Faster path determination Con: Limited set of protocols and applications supported Forwarding frames based on Layer 2 characteristics

61 Layer 3 – Network Router and Routing
Routed protocols Examples: Internet Protocol (IP) Novel Netware Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) Routing Protocols Routers talking to routers Maintaining optimal network topology/path to subnets, and forwarding packets along those paths – static and dynamic routes OSPF – Open Shortest Path First, IETF Standard (Link-State Routing) EIGRP – Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, Cisco innovation (Distance Vector Routing) Router Redundancy Protocols Fault tolerance for default gateways VRRP – Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol, IETF Standards HSRP – Hot Standby Router Protocol , Cisco innovation GLBP – Gateway Load Balancing Protocol , Cisco innovation

62 Layer 3 – Network Address Resolution Protocol - ARP
An ARP request is a broadcast message that asks “who has this IP address?”. The device which has that IP address will respond and the requestor will then add the IP address / hardware address pair to its ARP cache. The original device can now send the message. Device needs to send a message to Who has the IP address “ ” ? I have IP address

63 Layer 3 – Network Domain Name System - DNS
DNS is a name resolution protocol that allows users to identify devices by names rather than IP addresses. In order for DNS to work, a DNS server is configured to hold a table of names and the associated IP addresses. When a device attempts to send a message to a device with an unknown name, it will request the IP address of the named device from the DNS server. Controller needs to send a message to PowerFlex DNS server What is the IP address for “PowerFlex”?

64 Layer 3 – Network Domain Name System - DNS
The DNS server will refer to it’s table and send back an IP address for the requested name. Once the client device receives the IP address for a name, it will store it in it’s own table so it does not have to ask for the IP address every time. The device may still have to do an ARP request, since it must ultimately decode the IP address into a hardware address. DNS server The IP address is DNS Table Name IP address Controller PowerFlex Point

65 Layer 3 – Network Network Address Translation (NAT)
NAT allows a single device, commonly a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public network) and the private network. This means that only a single, unique IP address is required to represent an entire group of computers. RFC and RFC 1918 describe NAT Can take a number of different forms and work in several different ways, but mapping and lookup tables are the basic tools behind NAT. NAT operates at the Network Layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model RFC – request for comment … IETF memorandum describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to IP

66 Layer 3 – Network RSLinx and Layer 3 Devices
VLAN 20 Subnet /24 Default Gateway RSLinx Classic Ethernet Devices Driver Manual entering of IP addresses (unicast) EtherNet/IP Driver Autobrowse (broadcast) VLAN 17 Subnet /24 For either driver, specify Default Gateway within the EtherNet/IP devices and the RSLinx platform

67 Layer 3 – Network RSLinx and Layer 3 Devices
VLAN 20 Subnet /24 Default Gateway ip directed-broadcast VLAN 17 Subnet /24 For EtherNet/IP driver, configure Browse Remote Subnet

68 Layer 3 – Network RSLinx and Layer 3 Devices
For EtherNet/IP driver, enable IP Directed Broadcast on Cisco Layer 3 Device (disabled by default) ip directed-broadcast [access-list-number] … CLI command RSLinx Enterprise No support for IP Directed Broadcast, must manually enter IP addresses RSLinx VLAN 20 Subnet /24 Default Gateway ip directed-broadcast VLAN 17 Subnet /24

69 Layer 3 – Network RSLinx and Layer 3 Summary
RSLinx Classic Ethernet Devices Driver Define Default Gateway within OS and appropriate EtherNet/IP devices Manually enter IP addresses (unicast) EtherNet/IP Driver Select “Browse Remote Subnet”, specify subnet address and subnet mask Enable IP Directed-Broadcast on Stratix 8300 or Cisco Layer 3 Catalyst switch – e.g. 3560, 3750 RSLinx Enterprise 69

70 Layer 3 – Network EN2TR Example
EN2TR Webpage ARP Table Example screenshots of RSLogix 5000 and built-in webpage of 1756-EN2TR … showing network layer characteristics RSLogix 5000 EN2TR Properties Port Diagnostics EN2TR Webpage IP Statistics

71 Layer 3 – Network EtherNet/IP is Standard
Version /Len ToS Byte Len ID Offset TTL Proto HCS IP SA IP DA Data IPv4 Packet Standard IPv4 Transmission types: unicast, multicast and “ip directed-broadcast” TTL Unicast - 64 Multicast - 1 Multicast addresses /14 range Layer 3 service example QoS – ToS - DSCP 71

72 Layer 4 – Transport Segment
This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or devices, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer. User Datagram Protocol - UDP Connectionless/best effort Does not use acknowledgements IP - Unicast and Multicast CIP – used for Class 1 (Implicit) I/O and P/C connections – port 2222 Transmission Control Protocol - TCP Connection-oriented, end-to-end reliable transmission Utilizes acknowledgements (ACK) to ensure reliable delivery IP - Unicast CIP – used for Class 3 (Explicit) messaging such as Operator Interface – port 44818 UDP Header The transport layer accepts data from the application layer and segments the data for transport across the network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process. Multiplexing enables data from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link. Virtual circuits are established, maintained, and terminated by the transport layer. Error checking involves creating various mechanisms for detecting transmission errors, while error recovery involves acting, such as requesting that data be retransmitted, to resolve any errors that occur. The transport protocols used on the Internet are TCP and UDP. TCP Header

73 Layer 4 – Transport Ports and Sockets
Networked devices don’t typically have only one function to perform ports are used on the network to identify the service that is being requested or provided by a given node. A socket is more specific and identifies a specific endpoint for a connection (just like a light socket) it would be made up of the IP address and port number. Lets say that you are sitting at you desk and you want to do a google search What would you do? You would open Internet explorer and type this activity uses both ports and sockets. Google.com is the IP address/DNS name of the server or resource that you wish to access. The tells the server what you want to do with the server (open up the web interface which is port 80). Another example would be DHCP. When your machine comes online it send out a message to all nodes on the network requesting an address (the listening machines know that the device is requesting an IP address via DHCP because the message comes in on port 68. Hopefully there is a server set up to respond and give the node its IP address and it will do this using port 67. A Rockwell specific example would be browsing to a Logix controller with RSLinx with a laptop computer. The user wants to browse to his 1756-EN2T with RSLinx. The user would open up the RSLinx software and configure the Ethernet driver and click the button to browse. RSLinx would open up a socket to the IP address of the controller and port (Port used for interaction with RSLinx). The knowledgebase document will provide a list of TCP and UDP ports commonly used for Rockwell applications. Other common ports include: 80/tcp – HTTP WWW, 21/tcp FTP, 23/tcp Telnet. Assigned “well known ports” are assigned by the IANA and occupy ranges between Port ranges between are not managed by the IANA and are open to programmers. Some applications request an available port from the TCP/IP stack which could result in different results each time the application is ran. You will see this often on the source side of the connection. KnowledgeBase Answer# 29402

74 Layer 4 – Transport ControlLogix Module connection support (partial list)
Communications Module TCP connections CIP Connections 1756-ENBT 64 128 1756-EN2T 256 1756-EN2TR 1756-EN3TR 1756-EN2F Multiple CIP connections can be supported by 1 TCP connections: A Logix controller has 5 I/O connections to modules in a remote chassis, and all of these connections originate with a local 1756-EN2T and connect using the same remote chassis, with the same 1756-EN2T. This would example would use: 1 TCP connection and 5 CIP connections. CIP connection Types: rack-optimized vs. direct: data from selected I/O modules is collected and produced on one connection instead of separate direct connections for each module ENET-UM001G-EN-P EtherNet/IP Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems …. provides connection and packet rate specs for modules

75 Layer 4 – Transport EN2TR Example
EN2TR Webpage UDP Statistics EN2TR Webpage Diagnostic Overview Example screenshots of built-in webpage of 1756-EN2TR … showing transport layer characteristics EN2TR Webpage TCP Connection

76 Layer 4 – Transport EtherNet/IP is Standard
UDP Header TCP Header Standard IETF TCP & UDP Standard IETF TCP & UDP Port Usage The transport layer accepts data from the application layer and segments the data for transport across the network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data is delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process. Multiplexing enables data from several applications to be transmitted onto a single physical link. Virtual circuits are established, maintained, and terminated by the transport layer. Error checking involves creating various mechanisms for detecting transmission errors, while error recovery involves acting, such as requesting that data be retransmitted, to resolve any errors that occur. The transport protocols used on the Internet are TCP and UDP.

77 Layer 7 – Application Common Industrial Protocol
Guten tag? Hello. How are you? Bonjour? PLANT/SITE Hi. I’m great. MACHINE/SKID Standard IEEE 802.3/802.1 Ethernet Standard IETF TCP/IP Protocol Suite Common Network Services Common Industrial Protocol (CIP)

78 Layer 7 – Application Common Industrial Protocol
Standard set of services for accessing data and controlling industrial device operation Standard to integrate I/O control, device configuration and data collection in industrial automation and control systems Layer No. Layer 7 Layer 4 CIP is portable and network independent utilized in networks such as: EtherNet/IP – CIP/TCP/UDP/IP/Ethernet ControlNet DeviceNet CompoNet Enables seamless routing and bridging throughout CIP networks Common Industrial Protocol (CIP™) is an upper layer protocol and encompasses a comprehensive suite of messages and services for a variety of industrial automation applications, including control, safety, synchronization, motion, configuration and information. As a truly media independent protocol that is supported by hundreds of vendors around the world, CIP provides users with a unified communication architecture throughout the manufacturing enterprise. CIP is an object-oriented connection-based protocol that supports two basic types of messaging: Explicit Messaging and Implicit Messaging (commonly called I/O Messaging). Explicit Messaging Connections Explicit messaging connections provide generic, multi-purpose communication paths between two devices. These connections are often referred to as class 3 messaging connections. Explicit messages provide the typical request/response-oriented network communication. Each request is typically directed at a different data item. Explicit messages can be used for configuring, monitoring and troubleshooting. I/O Connections (Implicit Messaging) I/O connections provide dedicated, special purpose communication paths between a producing application and one or more consuming applications. The application-specific I/O data that moves through these connections is a fixed, structure and typically exchanged cyclically Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 odva.org

79 Layer 7 – Application Common Industrial Protocol
CIP uses object modeling to describe devices Device Profiles define the communication view of a device Electronic Data Sheets (EDS) Common Industrial Protocol (CIP™) is an upper layer protocol and encompasses a comprehensive suite of messages and services for a variety of industrial automation applications, including control, safety, synchronization, motion, configuration and information. As a truly media independent protocol that is supported by hundreds of vendors around the world, CIP provides users with a unified communication architecture throughout the manufacturing enterprise. CIP is an object-oriented connection-based protocol that supports two basic types of messaging: Explicit Messaging and Implicit Messaging (commonly called I/O Messaging). Explicit Messaging Connections Explicit messaging connections provide generic, multi-purpose communication paths between two devices. These connections are often referred to as class 3 messaging connections. Explicit messages provide the typical request/response-oriented network communication. Each request is typically directed at a different data item. Explicit messages can be used for configuring, monitoring and troubleshooting. I/O Connections (Implicit Messaging) I/O connections provide dedicated, special purpose communication paths between a producing application and one or more consuming applications. The application-specific I/O data that moves through these connections is a fixed, structure and typically exchanged cyclically

80 Layer 7 – Application Common Industrial Protocol
Standard Ethernet Standard IETF TCP/IP Suite Application Layer Protocol - Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) EtherNet/IP = Ethernet + IP + CIP TCP and UDP at Transport IP Unicast and Multicast at Network Static IP Addressing for devices FTP HTTP OPC SNMP BOOTP DHCP IP IEEE Ethernet OSPF ICMP IGMP RARP ARP Explicit Traffic Control UDP CIP TCP SNMP – simple network management protocol EtherNet/IP Specifies How CIP Communication Packets Can Be Transported over Standard Ethernet and TCP/IP Technology

81 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Object Modeling
CIP uses object modeling to describe devices A device is described as a collection of objects Objects divide the functionality of a device into logically related subsets Device Profiles define the communication view of a device Purpose is to provide interoperability and interchangeability By using these Device Profiles, devices have a consistent behavior Electronic Data Sheets (EDS) - A text based file provided by the manufacturer that allows a tool to learn about the device’s: Structure and meaning of I/O data What I/O data transfer types are available Network accessible application config parameters UCMM I/O Msg Explicit Msg Connection Identity Object Network Message Router Application Objects Assembly Summary slide. 81

82 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Object Modeling
CIP uses object modeling to describe devices A device is described as a collection of objects Objects divide the functionality of a device into logically related subsets Each with well defined behavior Application Objects Identity Object Assembly Object Message Router Explicit Msg I/O Msg UCMM Connection Network

83 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Object Class
Each distinct type of object belongs to a specific Class Objects that belong to the same class are called Instances of that class Data items within an object are called Attributes All attributes can be addressed with Class:Instance:Attribute IDs Services are explicit tasks that an object performs These may be directed at a specific instance or at the class, which affect all instances of the class Class Attributes Services Behavior int NoInst; char value; Reset( ); Create ( ); Idle Run Fault Instances Behavior Attributes Services Idle Run Fault int status; char value; GetAttr(inp) SetAttr(outp)

84 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Object Modeling - Example
Object (Class): Discrete Input Instances Channel 0 • • • • • • • • • Channel 7 Attributes 1 20 15 Value: Status: Off_On Delay On_Off Delay 1 20 15 I/O Device

85 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Object Modeling - Example
Object Class: Human Object Instance: Peter Object Instance: Sam Attributes Weight: 82 kg Weight: 75 kg Height: 1.8 m Height: 1.7 m Age: 28 years Age: 29 years

86 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Device Profiles
Device Profiles define the communication view of a device Purpose is to provide interoperability and interchangeability By using these Device Profiles, devices have a consistent behavior Among vendors Among networks The structure of the input/output data that the device exchanges The device’s configuration data CIP defines profiles for many standard industrial control devices Standard Device Profiles may be extended by vendor-specific attributes and objects There is a generic profile and a vendor specific profile Application Objects Identity Object Assembly Object Message Router Explicit Msg I/O Msg UCMM Connection Network 86

87 Layer 7 – Application CIP Objects
Connection Objects model the communication characteristics of a particular application to application(s) relationship In EtherNet/IP these are actually several objects Connection Sensor Actuator Controller Device #1 Device #2 Application Object “Connection Objects” “Connection Objects” Application Object

88 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Producer/Consumer vs. Source/Destination
often referred to as “Polling” or “Request/Response” “The time is 8:00” “The time is 8:00” “The time is 8:00” “The time is 8:00” “The time is 8:00” Producer/Consumer also referred to as “Publisher/Subscriber” contains all Source/Destination capabilities, plus additional capabilities for improved efficiency

89 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Producer/Consumer vs. Source/Destination
Transmission types: Source/Destination (point to point) Often referred to as “Polling” or “Request/Response” Synchronized action between nodes is very difficult as data arrives at a different time to each node Wastes bandwidth as data must be sent multiple times when only the destination is different Producer/Consumer Also referred to as “Publisher/Subscriber” Contains all Source/Destination capabilities, plus additional capabilities for improved efficiency Multiple nodes can consume the same data at the same time from a single producer so nodes can be synchronized More efficient bandwidth usage source dest data crc identifier data crc

90 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Unconnected Messaging
Most basic means of communicating All nodes must support (on EtherNet/IP) Unconnected Message Manager (UCMM) is always available No reservation mechanism means it may get busy No maintenance or setup required Use only when needed No need to ‘keep it alive’ with periodic messages Supports all explicit services defined by CIP It is possible to build a node that only communicates in this manner Such a device would have limited usefulness Client Node P C Request Response Node Server Node C P

91 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Connected Messaging
A relationship between two or more applications on different nodes Explicit or Implicit connections are available Supports the Producer-Consumer model Efficient transfer mechanism Provides timeout indication Applications aware if relationship breaks down Resources for a particular application are reserved in advance A limited resource a node can run out of connections Point to Point Consumer Multicast Producer Node Multicast Consumer network Multicast Consumer Point to Point Producer Multicast Consumer

92 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Explicit Messages
Explicit Messages are used for point to point, client-server type transactions – transport class 3 (Class 3) The Server side is bound to the Message Router object Has access to all internal resources The Client side is bound to a client application object Has a need to generate requests to the server Uses an explicit messaging protocol in the data portion of the message packet Connected or Unconnected Application Examples: Configuration, Diagnostics, and Data collection RSLinx, Message instructions Device #1 Device #2 Application Object Explicit Messaging Connection Explicit Messaging Connection Application Object Request Request Response Response

93 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Implicit Messages
Implicit Messages transfer application specific I/O data – transport class 0/1 (Class 1) The data source/destination is an application object (e.g. Assembly object) There is no protocol in the message data - it’s all I/O data Data transfer is more efficient because the meaning of the data is known ahead of time Transfer is initiated on a time basis (Cyclic Trigger) or Requested Packet Interval (RPI) Connection timing mechanism to alert application that the other side has stopped communicating – heartbeat Only connected - there is no unconnected implicit messaging Application Examples: Real-time I/O data, Functional safety data, Motion control data Device #1 Device #2 I/O Producing Application Object Producing I/O Connection Consuming I/O Connection I/O Consuming Application Object

94 Layer 7 – Application CIP – Electronic Data Sheet (EDS)
A text based file provided by the manufacturer that allows a tool to learn about the device’s: Structure and meaning of I/O data What I/O data transfer types are available Network accessible application config parameters Supports modular products for complex devices Constructs describe a rack system: Chassis, modules & communication adapters EDS file format linked to the product’s identity Tailored to individual product features

95 CIP Safety Layer 7 - Application
CIP Extension IEC – SIL3 and EN Cat 4 High-integrity Safety Services and Messages for CIP Data redundancy - data sent twice (actual & inverted) Safety CRC redundancy – actual & inverted End-to-end Safety CRCs - individual CRCs for data (actual & inverted) and overall message Every packet is time stamped Two behaviors must be implemented: Real-time transfer of safety data Safety Validator Object Client (Device producing safety data) Server (Device consuming safety data) Safety Messages Configuration of safety devices Safety Supervisor Object Originator (Device originating connection) Target (Target of connection origination) SafetyOpen, SafetyOpen Response

96 CIP Safety Layer 7 - Application
Catalyst 2960 Catalyst 3750 StackWise FactoryTalk Server Safety I/O Safety Controller Camera Safety I/O Safety I/O HMI This is a representation of a multiple industrial and non-industrial applications of one common architecture with multiple topologies. In the upper left, you have a switch in a star topology; we have a mixture of a safety controller as well as safety I/O and some additional safety I/O in a linear configuration. Linear networks are very handy when it comes to long distances such as conveyors and sorting machines. The IP based camera represents mixing both industrial as well as non-industrial traffic on a common network infrastructure. Counterclockwise is a switch in a star topology. We have a standard input output subsystems as well as a controller. As we move to the right, it is showing a ring topology mixing safety and standard control. VFD Controller I/O Instrumentation Safety Controller

97 CIP Sync Layer 7 - Application
CIP Extension Defines time synchronization services and object for CIP Networks Allows distributed control components to share a common notion of time Implements IEEE-1588 precision clock synchronization protocol Referred to as precision time protocol (PTP) Provides +/- 100 ns synchronization (hardware-assisted clock) Provides +/- 100 µs synchronization (software clock) Time Synchronized Applications such as: Input time stamping Alarms and Events Sequence of Events (SOE) First fault detection Time scheduled outputs Coordinated Motion Synchronized Clock Value Layers 5-7 CIP also provides for time synchronization. EtherNet/IP utilizes multiple IEEE standards not just such as IEEE1588. EtherNet/IP and CIP in general uses the IEEE1588 precision time protocol providing synchronization services for the common industrial protocol on EtherNet/IP. Some good examples of those are things like input time stamping. One of the key benefits of time synchronization is in the past you would have to have multiple networks: one for control, one for synchronization, and more cabling or more devices. These are more assets to manage or human assets as far as training management as well. FTP HTTP OPC CIP SNMP 1588 TCP UDP Layer 4 Optional Hardware Assist OSPF ICMP IGMP ARP IP RARP Layer 3 IEEE Ethernet Layer 1-2

98 CIP Sync – SOE Example Layer 7 - Application
EN2TR SOE GPS EN2TR SOE EN2TR SOE CLX Chassis #1 L6X CLX Chassis #2 L6X L6X CLX Chassis #3 S GM S S System Time Source Boundary Clock Boundary Clock Boundary Clock Clocks on the Network are synchronized to +/- 100 Nanosecond Resolution TransparentClock PTP Lingo Ordinary Clock Transparent Clock Boundary Clock Grand Master Clock S S S 1732E- SOE Armor Block I/O #1 1732E- SOE Armor Block I/O #1 1732E- SOE Armor Block I/O #1 98

99 CIP Motion Layer 7 - Application
Traditional approach to motion control - Network Scheduling (time-slot) CIP Motion approach - Pre-determined Execution Plan for position path, based on a common understanding of time between the motion controller and drives …… where to be and at what time

100 CIP Motion Layer 7 - Application
CIP Extension Controller and Drive Profiles Motion Axis Object Safety I/O Safety Controller Camera Safety I/O Servo Drive HMI VFD Controller Instrumentation Controller I/O

101 Layer 7 – Application EN2TR Example
RSLinx Classic - EDS RSLinx Classic EN2TR Diagnostics Connection Manager Example screenshots of RSLinx Classic and built-in webpage of 1756-EN2TR … showing application layer characteristics EN2TR Webpage Diagnostic Overview EN2TR Webpage Diagnostic Overview

102 Application Requirements Network Technology Convergence - Performance
What is real-time? Application dependent ….. only you can define what this means for your application. Function Information Integration, Slower Process Automation Time-critical Discrete Automation Motion Control Communication Technology .Net, DCOM, TCP/IP Industrial Protocols - CIP Hardware and Software solutions, e.g. CIP Motion, PTP Period 10 ms to 1000 ms 1 ms to 100 ms 100 µs to 10 ms Industries Oil & gas, chemicals, energy, water Auto, food & beverage, semiconductor, metals, pharmaceutical Subset of discrete automation Applications Pumps, compressors, mixers, instrumentation Material handling, filling, labeling, palletizing, packaging Printing presses, wire drawing, web making, pick & place Different applications have different performance requirements for latency and jitter. Deploy networks services and infrastructure devices to meet application requirements. Source: ARC Advisory Group

103 This represents about 10% of the total network bandwidth
Network Technology Convergence Single Industrial Network Technology – Throughput Performance Theoretical 100 Mbps Short frame with 64 bytes (1 bit – 10ns) ≈ 148,000 frames/second Long frames with 1518 bytes ≈ 8,000 frames/second Theoretical 100 Mbps Typical I/O frame size (64 byte + 36 byte I/O data) ≈ 104,000 frames/second Maximum I/O frame size (64 byte byte I/O data) ≈ 21,000 frames/second Normal CIP Forward_Open I/O Scanner exchanges 36 bytes of I/O data with 10 I/O adapters every 1 ms The I/O Scanner must be able to: Consume 10,000 frames/second Product 10,000 frames/second Design considerations you should consider Performance of Scanner Maximum # of Adapters (CIP Connections) Minimum RPI (how fast) Maximum I/O Data Size per RPI Performance of Adapters Network Infrastructure Latency and Jitter Speed / Duplex Physical Environment – e.g. EMI Interference Theoretical throughput of 100 Mbps (Mbits/s) Ethernet is 12MBps (Mbytes/s) Some of the Ethernet frame is counted separately …. Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) = 64 bits, Interframe Gap = 96 bits This represents about 10% of the total network bandwidth

104 Network Technology Convergence Single Industrial Network Technology - Performance
IEEE Mbps, Full Duplex, Switched Network 1 bit = 10 ns (1 byte = 80 ns) Ethernet frame size varies from Short frame - 64 bytes = 512 bits Long frame bytes = bits Some of the Ethernet frame is counted separately Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) = 64 bits Interframe Gap = 96 bits Theoretical throughput for 100 Mbps, Full Duplex, Switched Network Short frame with 64 bytes ≈ 148,000 frames/second Long frames with 1518 bytes ≈ 8,000 frames/second

105 Network Technology Convergence Single Industrial Network Technology - Performance
100 Mbps (IEEE Ethernet ), Full Duplex, Switched Network Total header size for an EtherNet/IP I/O frame is 64 bytes EtherNet/IP implicit message connection adds 18 bytes User Datagram Protocol adds 8 bytes Internet Protocol adds 20 bytes Ethernet Protocol adds 18 bytes Frame length (short frame) for an EtherNet/IP implicit message is: 64 byte + I/O data size (bytes) Typical I/O data size for implicit messages are < 36 bytes Theoretical throughput for 100 Mbps, Full Duplex, Switched Network Typical I/O frame size (64 byte + 36 byte I/O data) ≈ 104,000 frames/second Maximum I/O frame size (64 byte byte I/O data) ≈ 21,000 frames/second Normal CIP Forward_Open

106 This represents about 10% of the total network bandwidth
Network Technology Convergence Single Industrial Network Technology - Performance EtherNet/IP Throughput Example I/O Scanner exchanges 36 bytes of I/O data with 10 I/O Adapters with a 1 ms Requested Packet interval (RPI) RPI = 1 ms 1,000 frames/second in each direction Each I/O Adapter must be able to: Consume 1,000 frames/second Produce 1,000 frames/second The I/O Scanner must be able to: Consume 10,000 frames/second Product 10,000 frames/second Design considerations you should consider Performance of Scanner Maximum # of Adapters (CIP Connections) Minimum RPI (how fast) Maximum I/O Data Size per RPI Performance of Adapters Network Infrastructure Latency and Jitter Speed / Duplex Physical Environment – e.g. EMI Interference This represents about 10% of the total network bandwidth

107 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures
Isolated Network with Single Controller (ODVA) Examples Equipment Builder Solution (Machine or Process Skid) I/O VFD Drive Star VFD Drive HMI Controller I/O Servo Drive Linear Instrumentation I/O I/O I/O Ring VFD Drive HMI VFD Drive HMI Controller Servo Drive VFD Drive I/O Controller Instrumentation 107107

108 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures
Isolated Network with Multiple Controllers (ODVA) Examples Integrated Equipment Builder Solutions Single Cell/Area Zone, Multiple Machines/Lines or Skids/Areas I/O VFD Drive Star VFD Drive HMI Controller I/O Servo Drive Stratix 8300 Linear I/O I/O I/O Ring VFD Drive VFD Drive HMI Controller Servo Drive VFD Drive HMI I/O Controller Instrumentation

109 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures
Connected and Integrated Control System (ODVA) Examples Integrated Equipment Builder Solutions or End User Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Single Cell/Area Zone, Multiple Machines/Lines, Multiple Skids/Areas Industrial Zone Level 3 Cell/Area Zones Convergence-Ready Levels 0–2 HMI Camera Stratix 8000/8300 REP Class 1 & 3 Camera Safety Controller HMI I/O Controller I/O VFD Drive VFD Drive Controller Controller I/O VLAN 17 Subnet /24 VLAN 16 Subnet /24 Safety I/O I/O I/O Servo Drive VLAN 10 Subnet /24 HMI

110 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures
Enterprise-wide Business Systems Levels 4 & 5 – Data Center Enterprise Zone Level IDMZ Level 3 - Site Operations Industrial Zone Plant-wide Site-wide Operation Systems Physical or Virtualized Servers FactoryTalk Application Servers & Services Platform Network Services – e.g. DNS, AD, DHCP, AAA Remote Access Server (RAS) Call Manager Storage Array Levels 0-2 Cell/Area Zones In this system you can see that there are 3 Cell/Area Zones, each with different hardware. You could imagine that these 3 systems could be from unique manufacturers who would like to protect their Intellectual Property Cell/Area Zone #1 Machine Cell/Area Zone #2 Industrial Automation and Control System Cell/Area Zone #3 Process Skid

111 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures: Site-to-Site Connection
Broad geographic area WAN Examples: Point-to-Point Link – PSTN Leased Lines – T1, E1 Circuit Switching - ISDN Packet Switching - Frame Relay, Broadband DSL, Broadband Cable Higher Latency Use case examples – HMI and Data Collection WAN PSTN Remote Site Plant Site

112 Plant-wide / Site-wide Network Architectures: Site-to-Site Connection
Enterprise-wide Business Systems Levels 4 & 5 – Data Center Enterprise Zone Level IDMZ Level 3 - Site Operations Industrial Zone Plant-wide Site-wide Operation Systems Physical or Virtualized Servers FactoryTalk Application Servers & Services Platform Network Services – e.g. DNS, AD, DHCP, AAA Remote Access Server (RAS) Call Manager Storage Array Levels 0-2 Cell/Area Zones Site-to-Site Connection Stratix 5900 2) Cell/Area Zone Firewall Stratix 5900 1) Site-to-Site Connection Stratix 5900 3) OEM Integration In this system you can see that there are 3 Cell/Area Zones, each with different hardware. You could imagine that these 3 systems could be from unique manufacturers who would like to protect their Intellectual Property Remote Site #1 Local Cell/Area Zone #1 Local OEM Skid / Machine #1

113 EtherNet/IP Advantage Summary
Single industrial network technology for: Multi-discipline Network Convergence - Discrete, Continuous Process, Batch, Drive, Safety, Motion, Power, Time Synchronization, Supervisory Information, Asset Configuration/Diagnostics, and Energy Management Established – 375+ vendors, over 7,500,000 nodes Risk reduction – broad availability of products, applications and vendor support ODVA: Cisco Systems, Endress+Hauser, Rockwell Automation are principal members Supported – Defined QoS priority values for EtherNet/IP devices Standard – IEEE Ethernet and IETF TCP/IP Protocol Suite Enables convergence of IAT and IT – voice, video and data - common toolsets (assets for design, deployment and troubleshooting) and skills/training (human assets) Topology and media independence – flexibility and choice Device-level and switch-level topologies; copper - fiber - wireless Portability and routability – seamless plant-wide / site-wide information sharing No data mapping – simplifies design, speeds deployment and reduces risk Common industrial application layer protocol DeviceNet, ControlNet and EtherNet/IP - seamless bridging throughout CIP networks

114 Additional Material Website: Media Planning and Installation Manual
Media Planning and Installation Manual Network Infrastructure for EtherNet/IP: Introduction and Considerations Device Level Ring The CIP Advantage

115 Additional Material Networks Website: http://www.ab.com/networks/
EtherNet/IP Website: Media Website: Embedded Switch Technology Website: Publications: ENET-AP005-EN-P Embedded Switch Technology Manual ENET-UM001G-EN-P EtherNet/IP Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems …. provides connection and packet rate specs for modules ENET-WP0022 Top 10 Recommendations for plant-wide EtherNet/IP Deployments ENET-RM002A-EN-P Ethernet Design Considerations Reference Manual ENET-AT004A-EN-E Segmentation Methods within the Cell/Area Zone ENET-RM003A-EN-P Embedded Switch Technology Reference Architectures ENET-WP030A-EN-E Choosing the correct Time Synchronization Protocol Network and Security Services Website:

116 Additional Material Panduit Corp. Website:
Industrial Automation Solutions: Industrial Automation Product Systems Brochure Industrial Communication Solutions – Interactive Roadmap

117 Additional Material ENET-TD003
Fiber Optic Infrastructure Application Guide ENET-TD003

118 Additional Material Education Series Webcasts
What every IT professional should know about Plant-Floor Networking What every Plant-Floor Engineer should know about working with IT Industrial Ethernet: Introduction to Resiliency Fundamentals of Secure Remote Access for Plant-Floor Applications and Data Securing Architectures and Applications for Network Convergence IT-Ready EtherNet/IP Solutions Available Online /products-technologies/network-technology/architectures.page? People and Process Optimization: This Series is part of an overall collaboration between Cisco and Rockwell Automation to facilitate convergence between Industrial and Enterprise Networks. The intent of the Education Series is to provide a common reference and understanding on terminology between IT professionals and Control Engineers to facilitate dialogue. Education to facilitate Industrial and IT convergence and help enable successful architecture deployment and efficient operations allowing critical resources to focus on increasing innovation and productivity. Rockwell Automation and Cisco encourages that IT and Control Engineers watch these video on demands (VoDs) together. Remember, it’s all about facilitating dialogue

119 Additional Material Websites Design Guides Application Guides
Reference Architectures Design Guides Converged Plant-wide Ethernet (CPwE) Application Guides Fiber Optic Infrastructure Application Guide Education Series Webcasts Whitepapers Top 10 Recommendations for Plant-wide EtherNet/IP Deployments Securing Manufacturing Computer and Controller Assets Production Software within Manufacturing Reference Architectures Achieving Secure Remote Access to plant-floor Applications and Data Design Considerations for Securing Industrial Automation and Control System Networks - ENET-WP031A-EN-E

120 A new ‘go-to’ resource for educational, technical and thought leadership information about industrial communications Standard Internet Protocol (IP) for Industrial Applications Coalition of like-minded companies

121 Fundamentals of EtherNet/IP Networking Technology
Plant-wide Benefits of EtherNet/IP Seminar


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