2 Learning DisordersLearning disabilities are problems that affect the brain's ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. These problems can make it difficult for a student to learn as quickly as someone who isn't affected by learning disabilities.For someone diagnosed with a learning disability, it can seem scary at first. But a learning disorder doesn't have anything to do with a person's intelligence — kids with learning disabilities aren’t lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their brains are simply wired differently. After all, successful people such as Walt Disney, Alexander Graham Bell, and Winston Churchill all had learning disabilities.
3 Signs and symptoms of learning disabilities Preschool (4-5 years old)Problems pronouncing wordsTrouble finding the right wordDifficulty rhymingTrouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the weekDifficulty following directions or learning routinesDifficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the linesTrouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoesGrades K-4 (5-10 years old)Trouble learning the connection between letters and soundsUnable to blend sounds to make wordsConfuses basic words when readingConsistently misspells words and makes frequent reading errorsTrouble learning basic math conceptsDifficulty telling time and remembering sequencesSlow to learn new skillsGrades 5-8 (10-14 years old)Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skillsTrouble with open-ended test questions and word problemsDislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloudSpells the same word differently in a single documentPoor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized)Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloudSigns and symptoms of learning disabilitiesIt’s not always easy to identify learning disabilities. Because of the wide variations, there is no single symptom or profile that you can look to as proof of a problem. However, some warning signs are more common than others at different ages.
4 Types of learning disorders Reading disorder (dyslexia)Writing disorder (dysgraphia)Math disability (dyscalculia)Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder)Dysphasia/ AphasiaAuditory Processing DisorderVisual Processing DisorderTypes of learning disordersThere are many kinds of learning disabilities. Most students affected by them have more than one kind
5 Common Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Difficulty reading Problems reading, writing, spelling, speakingDyscalculiaDifficulty with mathProblems doing math problems, understanding time, using moneyDysgraphia Difficulty with writingProblems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideasDyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder)Difficulty with fine motor skillsProblems with hand–eye coordination, balance, manual dexterityDysphasia/AphasiaDifficulty with languageProblems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehensionAuditory Processing DisorderDifficulty hearing differences between soundsProblems with reading, comprehension, languageVisual Processing DisorderDifficulty interpreting visual informationProblems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, pictures
6 DyslexiaDyslexia can affect people differently. Some with dyslexia can have trouble with reading and spelling, while others struggle to write, or to tell left from right. Some children show few signs of difficulty with early reading and writing. But later on, they may have trouble with complex language skills, such as grammar, reading comprehension, and more in-depth writing.Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly. It can be hard for them to use vocabulary and to structure their thoughts during conversation. Others struggle to understand when people speak to them. This isn't due to hearing problems. Instead, it's from trouble processing verbal information. It becomes even harder with abstract thoughts and non-literal language, such as jokes and proverbs.
7 Learning styles for people with dyslexia Learning should be structured and multisensory (use sight, sound, and touch)Practice till automatic (people with dyslexia have short-term memory difficulties)Work on one problem at a time.Use right brain skills: like imagination, patterns, colour and visualisation to augment learning.Make sure there is nothing disturbing in the room you are studying in - dyslexics need to concentrate much more than other studentsUse technology e.g. spelling dictionaries, movies, computer programs
8 DysgraphiaDysgraphia makes the act of writing difficult. It can lead to problems with spelling, poor handwriting, and putting thoughts on paper. People with dysgraphia can have trouble organizing letters, numbers, and words on a line or page.What Can Help?Use paper with raised lines for a sensory guide to staying within the lines.Try different pens and pencils to find one that's most comfortable.Begin writing assignments creatively with drawing, or speaking ideas into a tape recorderCreate a step-by-step plan that breaks writing assignments into small tasksWhen organizing writing projects, create a list of keywords that will be useful
9 Dyscalculia What Can Help? Use graph paper for students who have difficulty organizing ideas on paper.Work on finding different ways to approach math facts.Introduce new skills beginning with concrete examples and later moving to more abstract applications.For language difficulties, explain ideas and problems clearly and encourage students to ask questions as they work.Provide a place to work with few distractions and have pencils, erasers and other tools on hand as needed.Dyscalculia refers to a wide range of lifelong learning disabilities involving math. There is no single type of math disability. Dyscalculia can vary from person to person. And, it can affect people differently at different stages of life. Two major areas of weakness can contribute to math learning disabilities:Visual-spatial difficulties, which result in a person having trouble processing what the eye seesLanguage processing difficulties, which result in a person having trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears
10 ADHD/ADDADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a medical condition that affects how well someone can sit still, focus, and pay attention. People with ADHD have differences in the parts of their brains that control attention and activity. This means that they may have trouble focusing on certain tasks and subjects, or they may seem "wired," act impulsively, and get into trouble.Sometimes the symptoms of ADHD become less severe as a person grows older. For example, experts believe that the hyperactivity part of the disorder can diminish with age, although the problems with organization and attention often remain.Although some people may "grow out of" their symptoms, more than half of all kids who have ADHD will continue to show signs of the condition as young adults.No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. It runs in families, so genetics may be a factor.ADD (attention deficit disorder) is a type of ADHD that doesn't involve hyperactivity.