# ENERGY Physical Science Unit.

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ENERGY Physical Science Unit

WHAT IS ENERGY? Interactive Notebook pg. 112

What is Energy? background

What is Energy? background

What is Energy? What does this mean? Energy – The ability to do work
--Means that energy is needed to apply a force to an object to make it move. -- Energy is also needed to make a change in the state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). background This power or ability to make things happen is what we can call energy. It makes things happen. It makes change possible.

What is Physical Science?
The combination of energy and matter make up the universe: Matter is substance (stuff), and energy is the mover and changer of substance (stuff).

Types of Energy? Types of Energy Clip (1 minute 50 seconds)

Electromagnetic Waves
Energy can be transferred from one system to another in different ways: Types of Energy Mechanical Energy Thermal Energy Electromagnetic Waves Electrical Energy Nuclear Energy Chemical Energy 6.P.3.1 Energy can be transferred from one system to another (or from a system to its environment) in different ways thermally, when a warmer object is in contact with a cooler one mechanically, when two objects push or pull on each other over a distance electrically, when an electrical source such as a battery or generator is connected in a complete circuit to an electrical device by electromagnetic waves

The Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.

How is all energy divided?
Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Gravitation Potential Energy Elastic Chemical

Interactive Notebook Page 111
TITLE: Forms and States of ENERGY

What is Kinetic Energy? - All moving things have kinetic energy.
- It is energy possessed by an object due to its motion or movement. --- These include very large things, like planets, and very small ones, like atoms. --- The heavier a thing is, and the faster it moves, the more kinetic energy it has.

What is Potential Energy?
Potential energy is the stored energy an object has because of its position or state. EXAMPLES: A bicycle on top of a hill, a book held over your head, and a stretched spring all have potential energy.

Potential Kinetic energy of position or energy in storage.
Water behind a dam Hammer over head Food on the plate energy of motion, the form capable of doing work Flowing water A falling hammer Electrons regenerating ATP in a bio’l cell

What is Gravitational Potential Energy?
Potential energy due to an object’s position P.E. = mass x height x gravity Don’t look down, Rover! Good boy!

What is Potential Energy?
Energy that is stored and waiting to be used later

What is Elastic Potential Energy?
Potential energy due compression or expansion of an elastic object. Notice the ball compressing and expanding

What is Chemical Potential Energy?
Potential energy stored within the chemical bonds of an object

What is Kinetic Energy? Energy an object has due to its motion
K.E. = .5(mass x speed2)

Forms OF ENERGY

6 Fundamental Forms of Energy
mechanical energy Thermal (heat) energy electromagnetic energy electrical energy nuclear energy chemical energy

What is Mechanical Energy?
Energy due to a object’s motion (kinetic) or position (potential). The bowling ball has mechanical energy. When the ball strikes the pins, mechanical energy is transferred to the pins!

Examples of Mechanical Energy

What is Thermal Energy? Heat energy The heat energy of an object determines how active its atoms are. A hot object is one whose atoms and molecules are excited and show rapid movement. A cooler object's molecules and atoms will show less movement.

Thermal Energy Which bowl of soup has more thermal energy at the same temperature – the large bowl or the small bowl?

Thermal Energy Which bowl of soup has more thermal energy at the same temperature – the large bowl or the small bowl? The amount of thermal energy in an object is related to its mass. If two objects at the same temperature are compared, the one with the greater mass has MORE thermal energy.

Thermal Energy Which bowl of soup has more thermal energy at the same temperature – the large bowl or the small bowl? The amount of thermal energy in an object is related to its mass. If two objects at the same temperature are compared, the one with the greater mass has MORE thermal energy. And the object with LESS MASS has? ___________________

Thermal Energy Which has more thermal energy?
A lit match or an ice sculpture?

What is Electromagnetic Energy?
Radiant or ”Light” energy Includes energy from gamma rays, xrays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, microwave and radio bands

What is Electrical Energy?
Energy caused by the movement of electrons Easily transported through power lines and converted into other forms of energy

What is Electrical Energy?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE Nucleus of an Atom (negative charge) (positive charge) (no charge)

What is Electrical Energy?
ATOMIC STRUCTURE Nucleus of an Atom (negative charge) (positive charge) (no charge)

What is Nuclear Energy? Nuclear energy is energy that is stored in the nucleus or center core of an atom. The nuclear energy is what holds the nucleus together.

What is Nuclear Energy? 1. Fusion
In order to use this energy, it has to be released from the atom. There are two ways to free the energy inside the atom. 1. Fusion Fusion is a way of combining the atoms to make a new atom.

What is Nuclear Energy? 2. Fission
In order to use this energy, it has to be released from the atom. There are two ways to free the energy inside the atom. 2. Fission Fission is a way of splitting an atom into two smaller atoms. The two smaller atoms don't need as much energy to hold them together as the larger atom, so the extra energy is released as heat and radiation.

What is Chemical Energy?
Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions. The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

Examples of Chemical Energy

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY
QUIZ TIME! What type of energy cooks food in a microwave oven? ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY What type of energy is the spinning plate inside of a microwave oven? MECHANICAL ENERGY

QUIZ TIME! Electrical energy is transported to your house through power lines. When you plug an electric fan to a power outlet, electrical energy is transform into what type of energy? MECHANICAL ENERGY

QUIZ TIME! What energy transformation occurs when an electric lamp is turned on? ELECTRICAL ENERGY ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

What types of energy are shown below?
Mechanical and Thermal Energy (Don’t forget friction)

What type of energy is shown below?
Chemical Energy

What types of energy are shown below?
Electrical, Mechanical and Electromagnetic Energy

What type of energy is shown below?
Chemical Energy (yummy)

What type of energy is shown below?
Thermal Energy

Draw a flow map showing the flow of energy transformations in a car from starting vehicle to driving. You should have 5 different types of energy.

Energy Transfer Sound (mechanical) Electrical Thermal Mechanical
Chemical Electrical Light (Electromagnetic)