Presentation on theme: "THE PASSIVE UNIT 19. Passive vs Active Sentence The president asked the employees to speak English. (active) The employees were asked to speak English."— Presentation transcript:
Passive vs Active Sentence The president asked the employees to speak English. (active) The employees were asked to speak English. (passive) ***A passive sentence and an active sentence have similar meanings, ***but the focus of the sentence is different. ***In the PASSIVE sentence, the focus in on the action, the person, or the thing receiving the action.
In ACTIVE sentences, the agent (the doer of the action) is in the subject position People spoke English at the meeting. (active) Agent Object English was spoken by people at the meeting Passive/ object agent
The agent not always necessary English was spoken at the meeting. (We assume people were doing the speaking.) ***Use the by + agent phrase is the agent is important or if the meaning of the sentence would be unclear without it. The internet is dominated by English. The internet is dominated by English. The Internet is dominated. (By who or what?) The Internet is dominated. (By who or what?)
***The passive forms of Present Perfect Progressive and Past Perfect Progressive are not common.
Transitive vs Intransitive Transitive verbs are the ones that take an object and they can be used in the passive. Someone saw her at the conference.(Active) She was seen at the conference.(passive) Intransitive verbs are the ones that do not take an object and they cannot be used in the passive. I fell asleep. (Only active)
TRANSITIVE Call, concern, do, expect, find, give know, leave, lose, make, put, see, take, use INTRANSITIVE Include, appear, arrive, come, die, fall, go, happen, live, look, occur, sit, smile, stay, wait, walk ***Born is the past form of bear. Born is used almost exclusively in the passive. I was born in a small town.
Passive Forms with Direct and Indirect Object Some verbs, such as give, offer, show, and tell can have two objects: a direct and indirect objects. The team gave the manager the report. indirect direct obj indirect direct obj The manager was given the report by the team. The report was given to the manager by the team.
Reasons for Using the Passive To describe a process or a result (common verbs: compare, develop, examine, make, measure, study, test) * First, the information was studied. Then recommendations were made. (process) *Therefore, English was made the official language of the company in 2010. (result) When the agent is not known and to avoid directly blaming or criticizing someone. When the agent is not known and to avoid directly blaming or criticizing someone. *The report was poorly written. To report news events To report news events Recommendations for the teaching of languages were published today. Recommendations for the teaching of languages were published today.
T HE PASSIVE OF FUTURE AND MODALS FUTURE Active: We are going to serve only natural foods in our house. Passive: Only natural foods are going to be served in our house. Active: My father will water the plants. Passive : The plants will be watered by my father. MODALS Active: They must inform the people. Passive : The people must be informed. MODAL + BE + Past PARTICIPLE PERFECT MODAL + BEEN+Past PARTICIPLE