5 What is Earth Science?the study of the Earth and the universe around it…the study of Earth systems and systems in space; including weather and climate systems, and the study of nonliving things such as rocks, oceans, and planets.
21 Biosphere: all organisms on Earth and the environments in which they live.
22 II. Methods of Scientists Scientific Methods: series of organized problem-solving procedures that help scientists conduct experiments.There are five (5) steps to the SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
23 1. State the Problem, or…Ask a Question? Observation: use of senses to gather information about the world.
24 What is the difference between an OBSERVATION and an INFERENCE? Observation: receiving knowledge of the outside world through our senses, or recording information using scientific tools and instruments.Inference: reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation.
26 2. Gather InformationTo investigate a problem, one must gather information…Measurement: comparing some aspect of an object with a standard unit.meters, inches, miles grams, ounces, pounds
27 3. Form a HypothesisHypothesis: a possible solution or answer to your problem or question; MUST be testable!Can be provenwrong.
28 4. Test the HypothesisExperimentation: procedure carried out to prove or disprove a hypothesis.
29 (a) Independent Variable: variable that you, the experimenter, changes (the manipulated variable) (b) Dependent Variable: variable that is affected by changes in the independent variable; factor being measured (the responding variable)(c) Constants: things that never change during the experiment
30 (d) Control: duplicate setup of the experiment with everything the same except the variable you are testing.
31 5. State a ConclusionAfter many experiments and observations, the hypothesis is either proved or disproved…
32 Scientific Method Scenario: David read that Fox brake pads and Best brake pads were the best on the market. He always used NAPA pads and believed they performed the best. He decided to test all three pads and determine which was the best. David used the same car for each set of pads. He drove 25 mph and applied the brakes at the same point on the track. David then measured how many feet the car took to stop after the brakes were applied.1. The hypothesis: ____________________________________2. The effects of the ________________(independent variable)on the __________________________________ (dependent variable).3. List three constants:______________________________________
33 Scientific LAW: a statement of fact that is believed to be always true STATES and describes behavior of natural phenomenon, does NOT explain thema ‘rule of nature’observable but not explainable
34 EXAMPLES of Scientific Laws: Law of InertiaKepler’s Laws of Planetary MotionNewton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
35 Scientific THEORY:an explanation based on many observations during repeated investigationsthe best available explanation of a phenomenona hypothesis that is supported by the experimentsmay change with the discovery of new data
36 EXAMPLES of Scientific Theories: Heliocentric TheoryTheory of EvolutionMeteorite Impact TheoryBig Bang Theory
37 "Scientific laws are the evidence used to support a conclusion "Scientific laws are the evidence used to support a conclusion. Scientific theories are our best attempts at explaining the behavior of the world, in ways that can be tested by further experiment. The facts (the scientific laws) must convince us that our theory is a good explanation for what happened."