Presentation on theme: "DNA Fingerprinting Choose DNA Fingerprinting"— Presentation transcript:
1 DNA FingerprintingChoose DNA FingerprintingWhat is DNA fingerprinting?Explain the steps”a. Getting a DNA sourceb. “cutting” the DNAc. Separating the DNA fragmentsd. Visualizing the DNA fragmentsWhat are VNTRs?How is this process beneficial?Click on view the shockwave interactive and follow the activity ( toward the bottom of the page itSays. Part 1. 2 and 3. It is very simple, but gets the point across.
2 Electrophoresisselect DNA Electrophoresis under Virtual Lab.Follow the activity and answer the questions.The beginning is a simple overview of electrophoresis and then you do the virtual lab andmake your own,1. Explain the steps in electrophoresisa. Making the gel:b. The Electrophoresis apparatus:c. Loading in the DNA:d. Running the Gel:e. Staining/viewing the gel:Why do the band/fragments of DNA separate on the gel?What had to be done to the DNA before using it for electrophoresis?
3 PCR: The Polymerase chain reaction select PCR under Virtual Lab.Follow the activity and answer the questions.Under the animation box is a brief explanation to some items needed for PCR.What are they and what are they for?a. DNA Polymeraseb. Primersc. Nucleotides2. Do the virtual PCR lab. When using the pipettor, you need to keep the mouse button pusheduntil you bring the solution to the PCR tube, then let go.a. What goes in the PCR tube?b. What does the thermocycler do?c. What happens when the cycler reaches 950C?d. What happens at 500C?e. What happens at 720C?How is it possible that you only need one copy of the DNA to do PCR?What is one cycle? (what are the steps)If you start with 2 copies of DNA to begin, how many will you have after 5 cycles?
4 DNA SequencingWho developed the process? When?What is the purpose of sequencing DNA?3.If there is target segment of DNA that a scientist wants to deternine the exact order ofthe bases. (ex; Sequence a specfic segement of DNA of a modern mosquito and comparethe sequence to that of a fossilized one). The scientist would have to have a sample ofeach DNA to sequence. This DNA is put into 4 separate test tubes. Follow the animationto see how sequencing is done.a. List else what is needed for the reaction and what is the purpose?1.DNA template- the segment of DNA that is to be sequenced; single stranded220.127.116.11.b.How are the four dideoxynucleotides different?c. How is it possible that fragments are produced in the reaction of various lengths?d. How are the fragments separated?e. How are the results read? (how do you determine the actual sequence of DNAbases?)
5 Restriction Enzymes and Recombination Select “manipulation” at the left menuSelect “techniques” at the bottom, select “cutting and pasting” at the top, Watch “cutting and pasting”and “Recombining DNA” segments. AlsoWhat are restriction enzymes? ( also called restriction endonucleases)How do they work? Give an example.What are “sticky ends”? Labbook pg. What are blunt ends?What is the functon of the enzyme ligase?How is using restriction enzymes useful?