# TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL WAVES

## Presentation on theme: "TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL WAVES"— Presentation transcript:

TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL WAVES
6.01

OBJECTIVES To understand the meaning of wave motion
To distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves To define amplitude, wavelength, period and frequency and state the relationship between them To understand the meaning of crest and trough

OBJECTIVES ( CONTD.) To find amplitude and period from a displacement- time graph To find amplitude and wavelength from a displacement- position graph To use v = λf

WAVE MOTION How is wave motion different from the kind of motion you have studied so far?

WAVE MOTION Wave is a way of transferring energy from one place to another without the actual large scale motion of a material body. Light from the Sun warms up the earth A soprano singing can break a crystal glass

WAVE & DISTURBANCE A wave is always associated with a disturbance

DEFINITION OF WAVE A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another The direction of energy transfer is the direction of propagation of the wave

MECHANICAL WAVES Require medium for propagation
Sound waves, waves in a string, water waves are mechanical waves

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Do not require medium for propagation Light is an electromagnetic wave

Wave & Particle Motion The wave, does exhibit a net displacement in space, whereas, the particles of the medium exhibit only oscillatory motion around their equilibrium positions.

Longitudinal Waves

Longitudinal Waves Vibration direction parallel to wave propagation direction Particles in medium move closer together/farther apart Example: sound waves Gases and liquids - support only longitudinal waves

Sound Waves Sound waves are longitudinal waves, similar to the waves on a Slinky: Here, the wave is a series of compressions and stretches.

Sound Waves In a sound wave, the density and pressure of the air (or other medium carrying the sound) are the quantities that oscillate.

Transverse Waves

Transverse Waves Vibration direction perpendicular to wave propagation direction Example: plucked string Solids - support both longitudinal and transverse waves

WATER WAVES What about water waves?

Water waves are a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves.

Wavelength The length of a full wave is called the wavelength, λ , and the time needed to produce one full wave is the time period T.

Speed of the Wave The wave moves forward a distance equal to a wavelength in a time equal to one time period The speed of the wave = distance / time v = λ / T Number of waves produced in one second= frequency, f f = 1 / T v = λ f ..\Desktop\PhET-1.0-windows-installer.exe

Graphical Representation of Waves
Displacement- time graph Displacement – position graph

Parameters Distance : where along the wave are we looking
Time: at what time are we looking at the wave Displacement : measures the disturbance

More on displacement String: the height of a point on the string from the undisturbed position of the string and is measured in units of length Sound: the change in the density of the medium relative to the equilibrium density and is measured in units of density Sound: the change in the pressure of the medium relative to the equilibrium pressure

Displacement All waves have a displacement
The displacement is the difference of some quantity and the equilibrium value of that quantity when no wave is present The displacement of any waves is a function of position( distance) and time

Crest & Troughs Amplitude: the maximum displacement of the wave is called amplitude Crest: Points on the wave with maximum positive displacement are called crests Troughs: Points on the wave with maximum negative displacement are called troughs

Wavelength & Period from Graphs
The distance between successive crests/ troughs in a displacement- distance graph is the wavelength The distance between successive crests/ troughs in a displacement – time graph is the time period.

Describing waves

PROBLEMS A sound wave of frequency 450Hz is emitted from A and travels towards B, a distance of 150m away. Take the speed of sound to be 341m/s.How many wavelengths fit in the distance from A to B?