Presentation on theme: "Psychological Methods of Stress Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychological Methods of Stress Management Lesson 16
2 Learning ObjectivesTo understand one psychological method of stress management.Success CriteriaWork in a pair to invent a stressful situation and describe how CBT can be used to manage stress.Complete page 19 of your booklet, making notes on SIT and evaluating the use of SIT.Challenge Criteria Create a poster about stress inoculation training in a group.
3 Psychological Methods of Stress Management When dealing with a problem it is better to use a set of techniques to deal with the situation, rather than the symptoms you suffer from.The individual focuses on the situation to try to minimise the stressful outcome.Some psychologists believe that the most effective stress management techniques train the individuals to think about the situation differently and to increase their resistance to stress.
4 Psychological Methods of Stress Management - CBT CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) is based on two psychological approaches:Cognitive approachBehavioural approachThe cognitive approach is based on the belief that the individual's thoughts and thinking influence their behaviourThe behavioural approach is based on the belief that individuals have learned undesirable behavioursCBT aims to reverse the thinking process by changing unwanted maladaptive thoughts, and produces a new set of desirable behaviours.Cognitive (challenging negative thoughts) + Behavioural (rewarding desirable behaviour) = CBT
5 Task: To think about how CBT works In pairs think about a situation that triggers stress.In box A write down the negative thoughts some may have in this stressful situation.In box B write down the negative behaviour that may occur as a result of the stressful situation.In box C write how CBT would attempt to overcome negative thoughts associated with the stressful event.In box D write how CBT would attempt to overcome the negative behaviour associated with the stressful event.A (negative thoughts)C (cognitive therapy)B (negative behaviour)D (behavioural therapy)
6 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy - Stress Inoculation Training - Meichenbaum (1985) believed that you cannot control the source of stress but you can change the way that you think about the stressor. Negative thinking leads to negative outcomes, while positive thinking leads to positive outcomes. By thinking more positively you can cope better in the future.Meichenbaum’s SIT is a form of cognitive behavioural therapy specifically for stress; it is different to other stress treatments as SIT starts before a problem arises. Basically, you inoculate yourself against a disease before you get it; the same is true for stress.
7 Task1. Conceptualisation phase2. Skills acquisition phase (and rehearsal)3. Application phase (and follow-through)Use page to describe the three stages of SIT and then to evaluate the effectiveness of SIT
8 2. Skills acquisition phase (and rehearsal) Client and therapist build a relationship.The client is educated about the impact of stress.Threats are seen as problems to overcome.Client begins to see the stressor differently.1. Conceptualisation phaseCoping skills are taught in the clinic and rehearsed in real life.Skills are taught for the individual (positive thinking, relaxation and social skills).Coping self-statements are taught (“you’re in control”). These are cognitive and behavioural.2. Skills acquisition phase (and rehearsal)Clients apply the new skills to different situations.Techniques like imagery, role playing and modelling may be used.Clients may be asked to train others.Booster sessions are offered later.3. Application phase (and follow-through)
9 An example of SIT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UxOyMUlVWkU What you are about to see is entirely an art of fiction. No one is hurt in the making of this training video!During preventative SIT, military personnel are taught skills and then "experience" highly stressful situations in a virtual environment while being physiologically monitored. Repeated exposure enables performers to gradually become desensitized to stimuli that may initially elicit such strong physiologic arousal that performance is impeded (i.e., "freezing in the line of fire") and psychological trauma is more likely.
10 Evaluation of SIT Strengths of SIT Weaknesses of SIT SIT is better than systematic desensitisation at snake phobias.SIT helps to inoculate against further stressful situations. This has long-lasting effectiveness and people are less adversely affected by stressors in the future.Sheehy and Horan (2004) examined the use of SIT on first year law students to reduce anxiety and stress and increase academic performance. Participants had four weekly sessions of SIT for 90 minutes. Participants who had SIT had lower levels of anxiety and stress. Academic performance of those predicted to be in the bottom 20% also had significant improvements after SIT.SIT takes a lot of effort and motivation which is time consuming, as well as being expensive.Only a limited number of determined individuals are suited to SIT.The effectiveness of SIT could be due to certain parts of the training, and not all of it. This could mean that the effectiveness could be improved if we taught people to think more positively and to relax more.
11 Practice QuestionKerry is a talented badminton player who has just been promoted to the first division. However, she finds these top league games very stressful because she thinks that she is not as good as the other players and she believes that she is going to lose every point. Now her game is beginning to suffer. Explain how stress inoculation therapy (SIT) could be used to help Kerry. In your answer you must refer to details from the passage above. (4)
12 Mark SchemeSIT: Three stages allowing Kerry to identify the sources of stress, think about them in a different way, give her strategies for dealing with future stress. First stage – conceptualisation: Kerry will think about the source of stress. Second stage – skills acquisition: the therapist will teach Kerry relaxation techniques and self-coping statements. Third stage – real-world application: Kerry will practise these skills in training sessions. Alternatively, the therapist might challenge Kerry and ask where is the evidence to show she is not as good as other players, especially as she has just been promoted? Kerry might be asked to keep a diary recording her performance and see exactly what each outcome was, so she has hard evidence about her wins and losses. This can be used to check the validity of her beliefs.SIT can be explained in different ways: either stage-based or in a more applied way without explicit reference to the stages.For full marks there must be explicit engagement with the stem.
13 Poster MakingStudents in pre-16 and also in sixth form get very stressed in the run-up to exams.Your task is to produce an informative poster about SIT and how it can help manage stress.You must include the three stages and also at least one strength and limitation.You can work in small groups and it must be completed by the end of the lesson!