Presentation on theme: "An Effective Model for Technical Coordination in the Globalising Internet Anne-Rachel Inné ICANN “Implementing the WSIS Action Plan” Nairobi 25-26 March."— Presentation transcript:
An Effective Model for Technical Coordination in the Globalising Internet Anne-Rachel Inné ICANN “Implementing the WSIS Action Plan” Nairobi 25-26 March 2004
Key points : The challenge of international technical coordination in the 21 st Century What ICANN does What we don’t do The evolution of ICANN Why and how the private-public partnership works in policy making The market impact of ICANN’s work
ICANN: The Basic Challenge An effective mechanism for technical self-management by the global Internet community serving a globalised economy
ICANN: The Basic Bargain ICANN = Internationalization of Policy & Management Functions for DNS and IP Addressing systems + Multistakeholder Partnership Technical community, business, academia, users, and governments
As a private-public partnership, ICANN is dedicated to: preserving the operational stability of the Internet; promoting competition; achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes
Domain names & IP addresses Domain names are the familiar, easy-to-remember names for computers on the Internet e.g., amazon.com, icann.org, nic.org.gh Domain names correlate to Internet Protocol numbers (IP numbers) (e.g., 18.104.22.168) that serve as routing addresses on the Internet The domain name system (DNS) translates domain names into IP numbers needed for routing packets of information over the Internet
The DNS Tree keugcomorgedu acco afdb sfcmed Root Zone File icann ● TLDs www
ICANN has a limited mission Ensure the stable and secure operation of the Internet's unique identifier systems. In particular, ICANN: 1. Coordinates the allocation and assignment of the three sets of unique identifiers for the Internet, which are a. Domain names (forming a system referred to as "DNS"); b. Internet protocol ("IP") addresses and autonomous system ("AS") numbers; and c. Protocol port and parameter numbers. 2. Coordinates the operation and evolution of the DNS root name server system. 3. Coordinates very limited policy development reasonably and appropriately related to these technical functions.
Operating the authoritative functions The IANA function gTLD formation and Registry Agreements gTLD Registrar Agreements Accountability Frameworks for ccTLDs
IANA functions include the following: Protocol Parameter Registrations and Assignments Root Management (gTLDs and ccTLDs) Numbering Resources for the Regional Internet Registries Administration of the.int Registry
What we don’t do: Content on the internet SPAM Financial transactions online Consumer protection law Privacy law Data protection law Intellectual Property law E-commerce, e-education, e-government etc.
The various interest groups competing for influence over the Domain Name and Addressing systems put the previous administrative process under breaking strain Registries ISPs Root Server Operators Security Issues IAB FCC FTC Registrars UNDP IETF Foreign Business US Business ITU (ITU-T) WIPO OECD Intellectual Property interests Consumers Developing World Governments ccTLD registries Civil Society Groups US Military NATO NSI/ Verisign Regional Internet Registries Universities OECD governments Jon Postel / IANA ETSIW3C
The Need for Change Circa 1996/97 Globalization of Internet Commercialization of Internet Need for accountability Need for more formalized management structure Dissatisfaction with lack of competition Trademark/domain name conflicts
ICANN internationalizing ICANN has or is in the process of opening offices in US, France, Belgium and Australia. Immediate plans call for physical ICANN presence in African, Latin America and the other Pacific Rim countries. Staff hail from seven different countries. Board represents twelve nationalities. Government Advisory Committee: over 85 governments and 5 International Treaty Organisations Establishment of the ccNSO Supporting Organizations and Committees that lead the bottoms-up policy development process are internationally based and populated
Board of Directors 21 person Board –15 voting members CEO 6 chosen by Supporting Organizations 8 chosen by Nominating Committee –6 non-voting members 4 chosen by Advisory Committees 2 chosen by Technical Liaison Group Members from: –Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ghana, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, UK, USA
Address Supporting Organization Represents constituencies involved in IP Addressing issues Address Council composed of 3 seats for each Regional IP Address Registry (RIR) APNIC – Asia Pacific ARIN – North America (and sub-Saharan Africa) LACNIC – Latin American and Caribbean RIPE – Europe (and Northern Africa) AFRINIC – In development
ICANN and the RIRs have ensured global resource allocation. since 1999, more than 313 million IPv4 addresses globally: –30% have been distributed by RIPE, –32% by APNIC, –36% by ARIN, and –2% by LACNIC. IPv6, has also received wide distribution: –51% distributed by RIPE, –28% by APNIC, –16 % by ARIN and –almost 3% by LACNIC.
Generic Names Supporting Organization Represents constituencies involved in generic Top Level Domain (gtld) issues Constituencies Contracted with ICANN –gTLD Registries (managers of gTLDs) –gTLD Registrars (registrars of domain names) Not contracted with ICANN –ISP and Connectivity Providers –Commercial and Business Users –Non-Commercial Users –Intellectual Property Interests
Country Code Names Supporting Organization The CCNSO Council (proposed): –18 voting members, including 3 put forward by the Nominating Committee. To ensure geographic diversity, ccNSO members in each of the 5 recognized ICANN regions (the Region or Regions) shall be entitled to elect 3 Council members. –Observer status will be held by a liaison officer appointed by the GAC, ALAC, and each of the ccTLD regional organizations may also appoint a liaison officer.
Advisory Councils Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) – Key and Special Relationship with all policy making and the Board Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC) Security and Stability Advisory Committee (SSAC) At Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) Technical Liaison Group (TLG)
The ICANN policy process is open and international Participation in ICANN is open to all who have an interest in global Internet policy as it relates to ICANN's mission of technical coordination. Many online forums which are accessible through ICANN's website, and the Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees have active mailing lists for participants. Public meetings throughout the year. Recent meetings have been held in Tunisia, Bucharest, Montreal, Shanghai, Rio de Janeiro, and Accra. Future meetings will be held in Rome, Malaysia and South Africa.
ICANN facilitates the development of policies for setting technical direction in the DNS through a bottoms-up, collaborative process. ICANN staff do not create or make Internet policy. Rather, policy is created through a bottoms-up process involving all necessary constituencies and stakeholders in the Internet Community. Necessary constituencies and stakeholders are those whose technical or policy making expertise is required in order to formulate sound policy and those who are affected by the promulgation of new policy.
Bottom-up and Consensus based Policy making: ICANN policy begins its development in the Supporting Organizations and Advisory Committees. Recognition that a policy is needed may arise from anywhere in the Internet community (including governments). International bodies such as the ASO, the GNSO or the Country Code managers are triggered in variety of fashions to consider, suggest or develop new policy or alterations to existing policy In particular, they will seek out advice regarding how differing regional and governmental concerns may affect the outcome of any policy implementation. The Supporting Organizations have liaisons from the Governmental Advisory Committee specifically to facilitate such discussions. Once submitted to the ICANN Board of Directors for approval, The Board seeks additional advice from the Advisory Committees, including the GAC, the IAB and Security and Stability Committee. When the policy has the demonstrated consensus support of the ICANN community, the Board will approve it. ICANN staff will then oversee the implementation of the policy
Policy issues presently under development: New Sponsored TLDs Policy process for liberalizing gTLDs Whois issues and Privacy WIPO II implementation issues for IGOs domain names Internationalized Domain Names
ICANN has introduced robust competition into the market for domain registration services. ICANN-Accredited Registrars: 1998-2002 Unit: ICANN-Accredited Registrars
Competition has saved consumers over $1Billion annually in domain registration fees 21 Registrars 162 Registrars 1 Registrar gTLD domain registration prices: 1998-2002 Unit: Widely-available annual cost for gTLD domain registration
Demand for gTLD domains has been strong. Domain name registrations in the Generic Top Level Domains: 1996-2002 Unit: Number of Registrations
100% = 627,000100% = 10,716,618100% = 29,865,715 Competition* in the Registrar market for gTLDs has resulted in a deep, diverse market. Network Solutions Tucows Register.com Melbourne IT Go Daddy Software eNom BulkRegister.com Others Market Share of Registrars for.com/.net/.org: 1996-2002 Unit: Percent of Registrations * Agreements among DOC, ICANN and VeriSign introduced competition in November 1999
Such focus on e-commerce has contributed to ccTLDs having grown as a proportion of total registrations. as of 1-Jan-01as of 1-Jan-03 ccTLD vs. gTLD registration share: 2001-2003 Unit: Percent of total registrations
ccTLD Registration Totals.deGermany6,117,000.ukUnited Kingdom4,168,000.nlNetherlands827,000.itItaly767,000.arArgentina626,596.usUnited States529,000.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands 500,000.jpJapan568,195.krKorea, Republic of507,000.brBrazil427,000.chSwitzerland500,000.dkDenmark428,276.auAustralia342,895.caCanada310,000.atAustria272,000.tvTuvalu261,589.beBelgium238,000.wsWestern Samoa182,504.frFrance163,000.plPoland175,000.noNorway165,000.cnChina179,000.seSweden148,436.twTaiwan123,000.ruRussian Federation156,000.nzNew Zealand144,251.czCzech Republic131,000.zaSouth Africa133,836.nuNiue111,795 Domain Name Registrations in the Top 30 ccTLDs Unit: Number (or estimated number) of Registrations as of 1-Feb-2003
Some proposals at WSIS Internet issues of an international nature related to public polices should be coordinated The Internet has evolved into a global public infrastructure and its governance should constitute a core issue of Information society agenda. As a consequence, there of 1) Call on the Secretary General of the ITU, in his capacity as the chairman of HLSOC (High Level Summit Organization Committee), in collaboration with relevant international organizations, to establish and co-ordinate a TF to investigate and make proposals on the governance of Internet by 2005…
Context Observation The public-private partnership, bottom-up, inclusive model for technical coordination - built over the last 35 years and now encapsulated in ICANN - involves tens of thousands of practitioners on a daily basis. Their results are impressive: –On a global level, there are an estimated 55 million domain names that are registered. –The Regional Internet Registries and ICANN have allocated approximately 313 million IP v4 addresses since 1999. with enough to last for another 20 years. –The new generation of IP v6 addresses contains 3.4 by 1038 addresses. Many billions for every person alive today. Approximately an IP address for each atom of the known Universe. Every day 750 millions users use the Internet to achieve approximately 18 billion resolutions per day. That is more than five times the number of phone calls in the North America per day. The system works. It works in the same way for all users of the Internet.
ICANN is open to all interested participants, processes are open, and your views are important and welcomed! For information and where you might want to be involved, see: http://www.icann.org