Presentation on theme: "Psychological Foundation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychological Foundation Foundation of Curriculum
2 Psychology How do we learn (and think)? Why do students respond to teaching?And why do they respond differently?CurriculumTeaching and Learning are InterrelatedCurriculum and psychology
3 Psychology and Curriculum Psychology - curriculumBasis of understanding – John Deweya “screen” – Ralp TylerModes of thinking – Jerome Bruner“Unifying elements of the learning process. It forms the basis for the methods, materials, and activity of learning… serves… for many curriculum decision (p. 100)”
4 Major Theories of Learning Behaviorism – stimulus and reinforcesCognitivism – mental operationHumanistic psychology – whole child (social, psychology, and cognitive development)
5 Behaviorism Connectionism (Thorndike) Theory Laws of learning (learning connection)Law of readiness, law of exercise, law of effectSpecific stimuli and specific responsesInfluencesTyler – generalized view of learningBobbitt and Charters – Specific Habits to be acquiredTaba – problem-solving and inquiry-discoveryBruner – “Learning how to learn”
6 Behaviorism Classical Conditioning (Pavlov, Watson) Theory Stimuli association (Bell and food)Key to learningCondition the child in early years of life to train them what you want them to be
7 Behaviorism Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Theory Elicited responses– definite stimulusEmitted responses– unrelated identifiable stimulusKey to learningOperant behavior – role of stimuli is less definite (Emitted)Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)
8 Behaviorism Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Theory Elicited responses– definite stimulusEmitted responses– unrelated identifiable stimulusKey to learningOperant behavior – role of stimuli is less definite (Emitted)Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)Lead to acquisition of new operants – Behavior modification
9 Behaviorism Observational Learning and Modeling (Bandura) Theory People learn through observation and modelingKey to learningThrough modeling, learner can learn how to perform at sophisticated levels of performance
10 Behaviorism Hierarchical Learning (Gagné) Theory The behaviors are based on prerequisite conditions.8 types of learning: Signal learning, stimulus response, motor chains, verbal association, multiple discrimination, concepts, rules, and problem solvingKey to learningCummulative process of learningLearning outcomes can be measured
11 Behaviorism and Curriculum Curriculum should be organized so students experience success in master the subject matter.Behaviorist are very prescriptive and diagnostic in their approach.Rely on step-by-step structured methods for learning.Behaviorism in curriculum includes careful analyzing and sequencing of the learners’ needs and behaviors.
12 Cognitivism Theories of Jean Piaget Describes cognitive development in terms of stages from birth to maturitySensorimotor stage (0-2), preoperational stage (2-7), concrete operations stage (7-11) and formal operations (11 – onwards)Key to learningAssimilation (incorporation of new experience), accommodation (learning modification and adaptation) and equilibration (balance between previous and later learning)
13 Cognitivism Influence Tyler’s method - 1. Continuity – Vertical curriculum, 2. Sequence – Spiral curriculum (past experience builds upon the preceding one), 3. Integration – Horizontal curriculumTaba: Curriculum strategies for productive learning (Based on assimilation, accomodation and equilibration)Bruner – Acquisition, Transformation, and EvaluationKholberg – Preconventional (no sense of right or wrong), Conventional (concerned about what people think), Postconventional (morality is based on what other people feel
14 Cognitivism Theory of Lev Vygotsky Cultural transmission and developmentChildren could, as a result of their interaction with society, actually perform certain cognitive actions prior to arriving at developmental stageLearning precedes developmentSociocultural development theoryKey to LearningPedagogy creates learning processes that lead to developmentChild is an active agent in his or her educational process
15 Cognitivism Thinking and Learning theories Gardner’s multiple intelligences.Learning styles: Myth???Goleman’s emotional intelligence. – Emotion contain the power to affect action.
16 Cognitivism Constructivism (Vygotsky) Individual as the active person in the process of thinking, learning and coming to knowLearner is the key playerKey to learningThe learner constructs understanding from the inside, not from an external source.Learners must make knowledge personally relevantIndividual must construct own knowledge- make meaning
17 Cognitivism Other Problem Solving and Thinking Theories Reflective thinking (Dewey)Critical thinking (Ennis, Lipman and Sternberg)Creative thinking (Fromm, Sternberg, Picasso, Dylan)Intuitive thinking (Bruner)Discover Learning (Phenix, Bruner, Taba)
18 Cognitivism and Curriculum Why use cognitivism in curriculum making?Cognitive approach constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learningRooted in the tradition of subject matterEducators been trained in cognitive approachesSchools are the place for cognitive learning. Students should not afraid to ask, not afraid of being wrong, not afraid of not please teacher, and not afraid of taking risk and playing with ideas.
19 Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology Gestalt Theory (Gestalt)Learning is explained in terms of “wholeness” of the problemHuman beings do not respond to isolated stimuli but to an organization or patter of stimuli.Key to learningLearning is complex and abstractLearner analyzes the problem, discriminates between essential and nonessential data, and perceive relationships.Learners will perceive something in relation to the whole. What/how they perceive it’s related to their previous experiences.
20 Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow)Classic theory of human needs.A child whose basic needs are not met will not be interested in acquiring knowledge of the worldPut importance in human emotions, based on love and trustKey to learningProduce a healthy and happy learner who can accomplish, grow and actualize his or her human self.
21 Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology Nondirective and Therapeutic Learning (Rogers)Established counseling procedures and methods for facilitating learning.Children’s perceptions, which are highly individualistic, influence their learning and behaviour in class.Key to learningCurriculum concerns with process, not product; personal needs, not subject matter, psychological meaning, not cognitive scores.
22 Phenomenology/Humanistic Psychology and Curriculum Motivation and AchievementSelf esteem and self concept must be recognized as essential factorsAffective needs are more important than cognitive needsSupport and nurtureThe Concept of FreedomFreedom permits the learners to probe, explore and deepen understandingEnhance learning opportunities and alternativesIn search of CurriculumLeaners draw on experiences, subject matter, and intellectual skills to attain full potentialAffection is measured through testimonialsCurriculum that enhance the self-actualizing and self-determining learning process