Decide which type of assessment –Input assessment –Process assessment –Outcomes assessment –Impact assessment
Input Assessment Questions Who are our students? –Demographics –Attitudes –Skills –Knowledge What do they need in the way of programs and services?
Process Assessment Questions Visibility: Do students know about us? Importance/Need: Do students want/need our services? Use: Do students use our services? Satisfaction/Reaction: What do students think of the services and programs we provide?
Outcomes Assessment Questions What have students learned? Who have they become?
Impact Assessment Did our program or service make a difference in what students learned or who they became? How will we know?
Moving from Strategic Vision to Measurable Outcomes
Mission Review What business are we in? What business should we be in?
Why Mission Review? To determine purpose To respond to changed assumptions To clarify values To respond to changed capabilities To strengthen decision-making To conform actuality with aspirations To foster institutional change and renewal
Goals Goals state what the institution desires to have (inputs), to be (processes) and to become (outcomes).
Goals What do we want the result – outcome, process, or input – to be? How will we recognize the result when we have it? What are the concrete behaviors? What specific evidence are we willing to accept that these concrete behaviors have actually occurred?
OutcomeIndicatorsCriteria To engage in systematic thinking Develop scientific hypotheses Write short stories Invent shortcut for transmission repair Written test: Given data Writes story: Given theme Hands on performance
Linking Goals and Objectives to Assessment and Evaluation Assessment ResultsEvaluative JudgmentAction to be Taken Information useful for decision making. Actual outcome compared with a pre-specified standard for an intended outcome. Changes, if any, to be made in inputs and processes on basis of evaluation.
Effective Goal Statements Begin with the word “To” Use verbs that imply action or accomplishment – To construct, To develop Use language appropriate to audience Include what you want the result to be
Example Goal To draw reasonable inferences from observations and logical premises
Effective Objectives Begin with the word “To” followed by a verb specifying an action or accomplishment Has associated with it one or more observable and therefore assessable results (concrete behavioral criteria)
Effective Objectives Identifies a target population Specifies or implies a target date for completion Identifies one or more indicators (methods of assessment) for its outcome
Effective Objectives Has associated with it conditions under which assessment will take place Has associated with it one or more standards of attainment for purposes of evaluation
Effective Objectives Relates to a specific goal Specifies WHAT will be done and WHEN, but not why or how or where Relates to a relatively short period of time, typically one year
Effective Objectives Is realistic and obtainable Specifies the maximum cost allowable
A Process for Writing Goals and Objectives Get the main idea down on paper be liberally educated think critically have a high standard of ethics be concerned about important social issues have good communications skills
A Process for Writing Goals and Objectives Identify concrete behavioral expressions of the outcome 1.What evidence would you be willing to accept? 2.What distinguishes people who have the characteristic from those who do not? 3.What instructions would you give to someone else who had to recognize the outcome?
Example Outcome: be liberally educated Concrete behaviors: knows a lot enjoys good books is articulate takes leadership roles in the community understands science writes well
A Process for Writing Goals and Objectives Clean up the language used in Step 2 Delete duplications and choose the one statement that best represents your intent Cross out behaviors that do not represent behaviors or conditions Eliminate statements that are not behaviors
Example Outcome: be liberally educated Concrete behaviors: uses the library reads the Great Books owns a public library card writes book reviews for the campus newspaper reads few mass market gothic novels
A Process for Writing Goals and Objectives Write complete sentences to describe each outcome Concrete behaviors: uses the library = borrows each semester at least ten books from the college library writes book reviews for the campus newspaper = has had accepted for publication by the campus newspaper during the last year one or more book reviews.
A Process for Writing Goals and Objectives Check for completeness of goal description Does this series of concrete behaviors adequately describe the goal? If these behaviors or conditions are present, are you willing to accept that the goal has been achieved?
Examples Goal: To graduate seniors who are all prepared for productive roles in society, both as effective participants leaders. Objective 1: To graduate students who have well developed higher-order cognitive skills. Objective 2: To graduate students who developed an active awareness of their natural environment Objective 3: To graduate students who have developed an awareness of themselves