# Section 1: Nature of Science

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Section 1: Nature of Science

If you eat fish for breakfast, then you will get smarter.
1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. A. What is Bobby’s hypothesis? If you eat fish for breakfast, then you will get smarter.

Breakfast foods (fish or cereal)
1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. B. What is the independent variable? Breakfast foods (fish or cereal)

1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. C. What is the dependent variable? The I.Q. test results

1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. D. Which group is the control group? The group of friends eating the cereal (they are not changing anything – they will have KNOWN results)

They both eat breakfast for one week.
1. Bobby thinks that eating fish for breakfast will make people smarter. He gets 10 of his friends and divides them into 2 groups. Group A eats fish for breakfast everyday for a week. Group B eats cereal for breakfast every day for a week. Both groups are given an I.Q. test at the end of the week. E. What are 2 things that are the same for both groups? They both eat breakfast for one week. They are both given an I.Q. test after the same amount of time.

2. Define BIOLOGY. Break it down: Bio = ? Bio = LIFE Ology = ? Ology = THE STUDY OF Therefore, Bio + ology = the study of life

3. List the properties of life and describe them.
Metabolism Response to environment Homeostasis Cells Reproduction Evolution Growth and development

Section 2: Biochemistry

4. Draw a water molecule. Label the hydrogen and oxygen atoms
4. Draw a water molecule. Label the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Label the positive and negative charges.

5. Why is a water molecule considered polar?
Polar = an unequal distribution of the negatively charged electrons in a molecule. Water is polar because it has a slightly negative charge near the Oxygen atoms and a slightly positive charge near the Hydrogen atom.

6. Complete the chart below.
Compound Monomer(s) (Building blocks) Function(s) Examples: Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Store energy Sugars and starches Lipids Fatty Acid Stores energy Makes up the cell membrane Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Steroids Proteins Amino Acid Involved in almost all cell activities Meats, Cheese, and Pasta Nucleic Acids Nucleotide Stores genetic information DNA or RNA

7. All organic compounds contain which element?
CARBON

8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things?
Cohesion The sticking together of particles of the same substance This is important because cells need to ‘stick’ to one another so that an organism can be one whole piece. WATER IS COHESIVE

8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things?
B. Adhesion The sticking together of particles of the DIFFERENT substances This is important because this is how water is transported through plants and trees. WATER IS NOT ONLY COHESIVE, but it is ALSO ADHESIVE.

8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things?
C. Solvent A substance that is able to dissolve other substances. Water is the universal solvent; it can dissolve nearly anything!

8. Define the following terms. How are they important to living things?
D. High Specific Heat The amount of heat required to raise the temperature by one degree is high This means that the temperature of water will stay relatively the same

9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and water to make grape Kool-Aid.
What is the solvent? The water *Solvent – something that dissolves something else

9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and water to make grape Kool-Aid.
B. What is the solute? The Kool-Aid Powder *Solute – something that gets dissolved

9. Janet mixes purple Kool-Aid powder and water to make grape Kool-Aid.
C. What is the solution? The grape Kool-Aid *Solution = solute + solvent

10. What is the function of an enzyme?
An enzyme’s function is to speed up a chemical reaction.

11. Draw and label an enzyme, substrate, and active site.

12. Define substrate. Substrate = the substance that the enzyme attaches to or acts on (also known as the reactant)

13a. How are enzymes affected by pH?
Ph and temperature can denature (change shape).

13b. How are enzymes affected by temperature?
Enzymes have an optimum (or best) temperature. Changing the temperature of an enzyme can cause it to become denatured (change shape).

13c. How are enzymes affected by enzyme concentration?
The more enzyme that you have, the faster the reaction will take place

Section 3: Cell Structure and Function

14. Make a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

15. Describe the 3 parts of the cell theory.
A. All living things are made up of cells. B. All living cells come from pre-existing cells. C. The cell is the basic unit of life

16. Complete the chart below:
Cell Organelle Functions Found in Plant Cells, Animal Cells, or Both Cell Wall Protects plant cell Plants Chloroplasts  Site of photosynthesis Cytoplasm  The liquid that fills the cell Both Endoplasmic Reticulum Packages Proteins Golgi Bodies  Sends proteins to the appropriate locations Lysosomes  Breaks down large molecules Mitochondria  Powerhouse of the cell; creates energy Nucleolus  Found within the nucleus Nucleus  Brain of cell Plasma Membrane  Controls what molecules are allows in and out of the cell. Ribosomes  Builds proteins Vacuoles  Stores food and water

17. Label the cell’s nucleus, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, mitochondria, cytoplasm, cell membrane, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi apparatus.

Section 4: Cell Transport

18. Define the words, then draw a picture to represent each one.
Definition Drawing Diffusion The movement of molecules from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration Osmosis The diffusion of WATER molecules Facilitated Diffusion The movement of molecules with no energy Aka passive transport

18. Define the words, then draw a picture to represent each one.
Definition Drawing Endocytosis Molecules move into cell Exocytosis Molecules move out of cell

18. Define the words, then draw a picture to represent each one.
Definition Drawing Hypertonic Cell shrinks Hypotonic Cell swells Isotonic Cell stays the same size

19. Draw the structure of a cell membrane
19. Draw the structure of a cell membrane. Label the lipid, phosphate, protein, and carbohydrate chain.

Section 5: Cell Energy

20. Write the equation for cellular respiration.

21. What is the purpose of cellular respiration?
To create Energy from Glucose!

FERMENTATION (alcohol or lactic acid)
22. What process do organisms use to make energy if they do not have oxygen? FERMENTATION (alcohol or lactic acid)

23. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic?
Aerobic requires OXYGEN, Anaerobic DOES NOT require OXYGEN.

24. In what part of the cell does cellular respiration occur?
THE MITOCHONDRIA

25. Write the equation for photosynthesis.

26. What is the purpose of photosynthesis?
To create Chemical Energy (Glucose) from Light Energy (the sun)

27. In what part of the cell does photosynthesis occur?
The Chloroplast

Section 6: Mitosis and Meiosis

28. Draw the cell cycle The phase where the cell spends most of its time increasing in size so that it can prepare to divide.

29. What are the 3 parts of Interphase and what happens in each one?
G1 – Cell grows S – Replication of DNA G2 – Cell prepares to divide

Division of the cytoplasm to form two cells
30. Define Cytokinesis. Division of the cytoplasm to form two cells

31. Write the phases of mitosis in order. Draw each phase

32. Fill in the chart comparing mitosis and meiosis.
What is the purpose? To create new BODY cells To create new SEX cells (Gametes) How many divisions are there? 1 2 How many daughter cells are formed? 4 Are the daughter cells identical to each other? Yes No Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid? Diploid Haploid

33. Define haploid and diploid.
Haploid – 1 set of chromosomes (half the normal number - gametes) Diploid – 2 sets of chromosomes (one from the mother and one from the father – body cells)

Section 7: DNA and RNA

34. What is the shape of DNA? Draw it.
DNA is a double helix

35. Where is DNA located? Inside of the NUCLEUS

36. Describe 3 differences between DNA and RNA.
DNA has the base Thymine (T) while RNA has the base Uracil (U). DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded. DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar ribose.

37. What are the 3 types of RNA and what do they do?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) – carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm Transfer RNA (tRNA) – Brings amino acids to the ribosomes to make proteins Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Directs the translation of mRNA into proteins and is found in the cytoplasm

38. Complete the chart by giving the complementary DNA strand, the mRNA strand, and the amino acids.
Complementary Strand ATG TTT GGT AAC GCT TTA TCT ACT TAA DNA TAC AAA CCA TTG CGA AAT AGA TGA ATT mRNA AUG UUU GGU GCU UUA UCU ACU UAA Amino Acid Met Phe Gly Asp Ala Leu Ser Thr Stop

39. Define Transcription – a strand of DNA is copied into a molecule of mRNA Translation – a strand of mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids to make a protein

Section 8: Mendelian Genetics

The passing of traits from parents to offspring
40. Define Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring

41. In pea plants green peas (G) are dominant to yellow peas (g)
41. In pea plants green peas (G) are dominant to yellow peas (g). Write the genotype for the following. Homozygous dominant: GG Homozygous recessive: gg Heterozygous: Gg Remember: Hetero = different Homo = same

Phenotype = physical appearance
41. In pea plants green peas (G) are dominant to yellow peas (g). Write the phenotype for the following. D. Gg: Green peas E. Homozygous recessive: Yellow peas F. Homozygous dominant: Green peas Remember: Phenotype = physical appearance

42. Draw a punnett square showing a cross between a homozygous dominant pea and a heterozygous pea.
Homozygous dominant = GG Heterozygous = Gg G G GG Gg G g

43a. Define the following terms and give an example of each one.
Incomplete dominance – traits blend and new phenotype created Neither the red or white are completely dominant here

43b. Define the following terms and give an example of each one.
Codominance – two alleles are shown at the same time in the heterozygous type Notice that the brown AND the white appear at the SAME time

43c. Define the following terms and give an example of each one.
Multiple Alleles – an allele with more than two forms (ex. Blood types)

43d. Define the following terms and give an example of each one.
Sex-linked trait – a trait located on a sex chromosome

44. What is genetic engineering?
Manipulating an organism’s genes using technology

45. Define cloning. Process used to create genetically identical organisms from sex cells

Section 9: Evolution and Classification

A theory developed by Charles Darwin that organisms change over time.
46. Define evolution. A theory developed by Charles Darwin that organisms change over time.

47. Darwins theory Theory of natural selection has 4 parts:
Variation in a population Survival of the fittest Overproduction of offspring Competition for limited resources

48. Give an example that explains natural selection.
Giraffes. Giraffes that had the longest necks survived, since they could reach the food better and that trait was passed onto their offspring.

47. List and describe the 4 parts of Darwin’s Theory.
More individuals are produced each generation than can survive. Variation exists among individuals and variation is heritable Individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive. When reproductive isolation occurs new species will form.

49. Define and give an example of each.
Variation – differences among genes (example: some people have brown eyes and some people have blue eyes. There is VARIATION among eye color) Adaptation – a trait that allows an organism to be better suited to its environment (example: polar bears have thick fur to help them survive the cold temperatures. Their thick fur is an ADAPTATION)

50. What was the early Earth like?
The early Earth was very volatile. There were many earthquakes and volcanoes.

51. List the 8 levels of taxonomy in order.
Domain (Broadest) Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species (Smallest) Remember: Dear King Phillip Came Over For Good Salsa

52. Use the dichotomous key to identify the organisms to the right.
1. Has pointed ears go to 3 Has rounded ears go to 2 2. Has no tail Kentuckyus Has tail Dakotus 3. Ears point upward go to 5 Ears point downward go to 4 4. Engages in waving behavior Dallus Has hairy tufts on ears Californius Dakotus 5. Engages in waving behavior WalaWala Does not engage in waving behavior go to 6 6. Has hair on head Beverlus Has no hair on head (may have ear tufts) go to 7 7. Has a tail Yorkio Has no tail, aggressive Rajus Beverlus

53. List the 3 domains and what kingdoms belong to each domain.
Bacteria (Eubacteria) Archae (Archaebacteria) Eukarya (Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia)

54. Complete the chart. Kingdom Cell Type: Prokaryote or Eukaryote
Cell Arrangement: Unicellular or Multicellular Nutrition: Autotroph or Heterotroph Cell Wall: Present or Absent Example Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotroph & Heterotroph Present Staph, Gonorrehea Archaebacteria Halophiles, Thermophiles Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular and Multicellular Present – made of cellulose Paramecium, Euglena, Amoeba Fungi Multicellular Heterotrophic Deocmposers Present – made of chitin Mushrooms, Yeast, Mold Plantae Autotrophs Present – made of cellular Shrubs, Trees, Flowers Animalia Heterotrophs Absent Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Section 10: Ecology

55. Define Biotic – living factors in an area
Abiotic – non-living factors in an area Biodiversity – the variety of life in an ecosystem Limiting Factor – a resource that limits the population growth Carrying Capacity – the maximum number of individuals a population can support

56. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary succession – a community begins where there was never a community before Secondary succession – a community is destroyed leaving only soil behind and a new community begins

57 continued What are the producers? – Grass and Corn
What trophic level is the grass on? - The first The snake? – The 3rd The grasshopper? – The second How much energy is passed from one trophic level to the next? – 10% What provides most of Earth’s energy? – The sun

58. Draw a graph for exponential growth
58. Draw a graph for exponential growth. Are there any limiting factors in this graph? There are NO limiting factors in this graph.

59. Draw a graph for logistic growth. Label carrying capacity
59. Draw a graph for logistic growth. Label carrying capacity. Are there any limiting factors in this graph? Limiting Factors DO exist in this graph.

60. What is a climax community?
An ecological community that is well established and is the end result of a succession.

61. What is the difference between an autotroph and heterotroph?
An autotroph makes their own food and a heterotroph must consume another organism in order to get energy

62. Describe the following relationships.
Mutualism – relationship where both organisms BENEFIT Commensalism – relationship where one organism benefits and the other is unaffected Parasitism – relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed

63. Fill in the chart about the biomes.
Climate Plants Animals Desert Hot and dry none to cacti, grasses few trees rodents, snakes, lizards, tortoises, insects, and some birds. Taiga/Boreal (Coniferous) very cold winters, cool summers,; mostly spruce, fir, and other evergreens rodents, snowshoe hares, lynx, sables,, caribou, bears, Temperate Forest (Deciduous) relatively mild summers and cold winters, hardwoods such as oaks, beeches, hickories, maples wolves, deer, bears, and a wide variety of small mammals, birds, Tropical Rain Forest hot all year round, greatest diversity of any biome; vines, orchids, ferns, and a wide variety of trees more species of insects, reptiles, and amphibians Tundra very cold, harsh, and long winters; short and cool summers; permafrost grasses, wildflowers, mosses, small shrubs musk oxen, migrating caribuou, arctic foxes, weasels, snowshoe

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