Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 2 : L OOKING AT L EARNING T OPIC 1 – A UXILIARY V ERBS ( 조동사 ) 12002060 임요섭 09002024 문영훈."— Presentation transcript:
C HAPTER 2 : L OOKING AT L EARNING T OPIC 1 – A UXILIARY V ERBS ( 조동사 ) 12002060 임요섭 09002024 문영훈
W HAT IS AUXILIARY VERB ? Auxiliary verbs are used to add functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb, the main verb providing the main semantic content of the clause in which it appears. Some sentences contain a chain of two or more auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs, helper verbs, or (verbal) auxiliaries. Also, uses of auxiliary verbs are to help express grammatical tense, aspect, mood and voice.
A UXILIARIES AS HELPING VERBS An auxiliary verb is most generally understood as a verb that "helps" another verb by adding grammatical information to it
A LIST OF AUXILIARIES IN E NGLISH A list of verbs that (can) function as auxiliaries in English is as follows. be (am, are, is, was, were, being), can, could, dare*, do (does, did), have (has, had, having), may, might, must, need*, ought*, shall, should, will, would * The status of dare, need (not), and ought (to) is debatable; and the use of these verbs as auxiliaries can vary across dialects of English.
T HE GROUP OF VERBS WITH THE ABOVE PROPERTIES CONSISTS OF : The finite indicative forms of the verb be: am, is, are, was, were; The finite indicative forms of the verb have: have, has, had, principally when used to make perfect verb forms; The finite indicative forms of the verb do: do, does, did, when used to provide do-support; The principal modal verbs can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would;
If the negative forms can't, don't, won't, etc. are viewed as separate verbs (and not as contractions), then the number of auxiliaries increases. The verbs do and have can also function as full verbs or as light verbs, which can be a source of confusion about their status. The modal verbs (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, and dare, need and ought when included) form a subclass of auxiliary verbs. Modal verbs are defective insofar as they cannot be inflected, nor do they appear as gerunds, infinitives, or participles.
Basic forms of examples Do you want coffee? Do is an auxiliary accompanying the main verb want, used here to form a question He has given them everything. Has is an auxiliary used in expressing the perfect aspect of give. We can do it anytime. Can is a modal auxiliary accompanying the verb do Using of have and has Contractions I have = I've you have = you've we have = we've they have = They've he has = he's it has = it's
Negative contractions has not = hasn't have not = haven't had not = hadn't 'have/has'' is an important verb in making the 'perfect tense': Present Perfect 'She has lived here for a long time.' 'We have seen this TV show before.' 'I have cut my finger.' Past Perfect 'I had already decided not to go before he asked me.' 'They had finished the race before it started raining.' 'She had already left when he arrived '
A. S TATEMENTS, Y ES /N O Q UESTIONS, AND S HORT R ESPONSES With do Affirmative Statements Negative Statements We study a lot. They don’t study a lot. Maria has a lot to do. He doesn’t have a lot to do. Yes/No Questions Possible Responses Do you study a lot? Yes I do. No I don’t Does she have a lot to do? Yes she does. No she doesn’t The simple present and past tenses use forms of do in questions, negatives, short responses, and tag questions. The verb have follows the same patterns when it is a main verb in theses tenses.
With be, have, and Modal Auxiliaries Affirmative Statements Negative Statements We are studying a lot. They aren’t studying a lot Maria can leave here. Maria can’t leave here. Yes/No Questions Possible Responses Are you studying a lot? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. Has Maria left here? Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t. Yes, you can / No, you can’t. Sentences with continuous and perfect tenses, modal auxiliaries, and the verb be as a main verb all follow the same pattern for formation of questions, negatives, short responses, and tag questions.
Examples(exercise 1) 1. Have you a lot homework? Do you have a lot homework? 3. Finished writing it? Did you finish writing it? 4. Already typed it? Did you already typed it? 10. Ready to leave now? Are you ready to leave now?
Example(exercise 2) 1. A: I ran into Professor Sommer yesterday. (see him / recently) B: No, (still / teaching German) A: No, (English literature) B : (schedule) A: Sorry, ↓ A: I ran into Professor Sommer yesterday. Have you seen him recently? B: No, I haven’t. Is he still teaching German? A: No, he isn’t. He is teaching English literature. B : Do you know about his schedule on Friday? A: Sorry, I don’t.
B. I NFORMATION Q UESTIONS Information questions ask When? Where? Why? How? How often? and so on. As in Yes/No Questions, an auxiliary verb normally precedes the subject in information questions. Example (exercise 3) Example : Why are you leaving? Because I have to study. 2. How did you get to school today? By bus. 6. How many roommates do you have? Three. 9. How much do you pay for rent? $200 a month 12. When does it take to get there? About fifteen minutes.
C. I NFORMATION Q UESTIONS WITH WHO, WHOSE, WHICH, AND WHAT In some information questions, the question word replaces part or all of the subject. Auxiliary verbs are not used, and the order of the subject and verb does not change Who is used only with people. It normally takes a singular verb, even if the answer is plural. Whose replaces a possessive noun or pronoun. Which can be used with or without a noun. It normally refers to one or more people, places, or things familiar to the speaker. What is generally more informal than which, and it usually refers to one or more people, places, or things unfamiliar to the speaker.
Example(exercise 4) 1. Who is the Canadian? / Mary is. 2. Whose roommate is from Spain? / Annie is. 3. What is the most difficult thing about foreign roommates? / The problems with language. We speak four different ones. 4. Which accent gives you the most difficulty? / Mike’s accent. It’s very strong Example(exercise 5) 3. Q. Why do you like to stay here? A. Because it is quieter than my apartment 5. Q. How many roommates do you have? A. I have three roommates right now. 6. Q. Who is the guy? A. He is the tall one with the glasses.
D. N EGATIVE Y ES /N O Q UESTIONS Negative yes/no question often show a speaker’s expectations or beliefs. A negative question can mean the speaker hopes for a yes answer but realizes a no answer is also possible. If the speaker is sure of a no answer, he or she can ask a negative question to show anger or surprise. Example(exercise 8) 1. Q. Could I borrow your notes from the lecture? A. Didn’t you go to class? 3. Q. How can I get in touch with Dr. Mills? A. Isn’t her phone number in the directory? 5. Q. Let’s go to a movie tonight. A. Don’t you need to study?
Example(exercise 9) 2. A. Why haven’t you finished your homework? B. I haven’t finished my homework because I was busy. 5. A. Why aren’t you going to go to the party? B. We aren’t going to go to the party because we lost our shoes. 8. A. Why shouldn’t I buy that car? B. You shouldn’t buy that car because it is too expensive. Example(exercise 10) 1. Have I to do all the homework for tomorrow? Do I have to do all the homework for tomorrow? 4. Where he is studying now? Where is he studying now? 9. How often you do have classes? How often do you have classes? 11. Did you not study economics? Didn’t you study economics?