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Presentation on theme: "AFGHANISTAN."— Presentation transcript:


2 Afghanistan: Geography
Located in Central Asia Bordered by six countries: China Iran Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

3 Afghanistan: Geography
Landlocked nation (slightly smaller than Texas) Total Population: 31 million Capital: Kabul

4 Afghanistan: Geography
Rugged mountains Hindu Kush: main mountain range across Afghanistan and into Pakistan Climate: cold winters and hot, dry summers

5 Afghans: A Diverse People

6 Languages Many Afghans are bilingual
The main languages spoken by Afghans are: Dari (official language) 50% Pashtu (official language) 35% Turkic languages 11%

7 Religion 99% of Afghans are Muslim
Islam is the religion practiced by most Afghans; it is central to Afghans' identity 99% of Afghans are Muslim

8 Rural Life Most Afghans live in rural areas
About ¾ of the population consists of farmers and nomads Only 12% of the land, however, is arable What problems might this lead to?

9 Afghan History Afghanistan's location along the Silk/Spice Road has allowed the country to serve as an important link between east and west throughout history

10 Afghan History This location, however, has meant significant intervention from outsiders
Great Britain & Russia fought over Afghanistan as far back as the 18th & 19th centuries Soviet Union invaded in 1979 and installed a Communist government From , Afghanistan became a battleground of the Cold War between the US- USSR (with the U.S. supporting Afghans who resisted the Soviets)

11 Afghan History Soviet Union withdrew in 1989, but civil war erupted among factions of guerilla fighters Civil war continued until 1996, when hard-line group known as the Taliban seized power Taliban seized power and imposed a strict interpretation of Islam

12 Taliban Pick 3 To Write Down
Limited women's ability to work in public places Banned girls from attending school Required women to wear burqas in public Required men to wear beards Banned music, sports Allowed al-Qaeda & Osama bin Laden to operate within the country

13 Refugee Crisis During the 23 years of conflict, roughly 4 million Afghans became refugees Most refugees fled to two main countries: Iran Pakistan There are also an estimated 200,000 Afghans living in the U.S.

14 The link between September 11th and Afghanistan
Afghans did NOT carry out the terrorist attacks on the U.S. Al-Qaeda, a terrorist network operating within Afghanistan and other places, did Many Afghans expressed their sympathy with the people of the U.S. after Sept. 11th After September 11th, the U.S. invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama bin Laden On May 1st, bin Laden was killed by U.S. Forces in Pakistan U.S. and NATO forces remain in Afghanistan today.

15 End of combat missions ended in 2014 Complete troop withdraw by 2016
U.S. troop withdraw: 2014- from 32,800 to 9,800 End of combat missions ended in 2014 Complete troop withdraw by 2016 2,356 U.S. Soldiers Deaths 19,964 Wounded 18,000-20,000 Civilian Deaths

16 Just to Recap 1979- U.S. supplies weapons to Afghan guerrilla fighters to fight against U.S.S.R. within Afghanistan. Some of the supplied guerrilla fighters will develop the Taliban (a harsh, controlling government, which will gain power). The Taliban will allow al-Qaeda & Osama bin Laden to operate within the country. QUESTION?- Did the Truman Doctrine lead to the attacks on September 11, 2001?

17 Afghanistan Today Afghanistan now faces a number of challenges as it tries to rebuild after years of war. Some of these challenges include: Poverty Education Health Gender equality

18 Poverty The majority of Afghans live on less than $1 a day
Only 23% of Afghans have access to safe water Only 12% of Afghans have access to sanitation Only 6% of Afghans have access to electricity

19 Education 67% of boys go to school, while only 37% of girls do
Problems for school attendance: Lack of teachers Distance between home and school Cultural constraints for girls Not enough school buildings (esp. for girls) AUAF has around students

20 Health Average life expectancy for Afghans is around 60
One in ten children dies before the age of 5 Many Afghans lack access to basic medical care 60% of the population live within 2 hours of the nearest clinic

21 Gender Equity Cultural restrictions lead to difficulty accessing education and health services Only 12% of Afghan women can read and write Yet, Afghan women are important contributors to household income, especially in rural areas

22 Government In 2004 Hamid Karzai was elected to the presidency.
Parliamentary elections were held in 2005. Local warlords, however, still hold power in many parts of the country. This contributes to the insecurity in Afghanistan. Current President: Mohammed Ashraf Ghani elected in 2014


24 Despite these challenges, Afghans remain hopeful about the future

25 What have you learned about Afghanistan?
THE END What have you learned about Afghanistan?

26 Afghans: A Diverse People
Major Ethnic Groups: Pashtuns 42% Takiks 27% Uzbeks 9% Hazaras 9% Others 13%

27 Sport/Pastime Bazkashi, the national sport of Afghanistan, is a team game played on horseback Kite-fighting is also a popular pastime among Afghan youth where participants try to cut through the strings of their opponents' kites

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