6 Languages Many Afghans are bilingual The main languages spoken by Afghans are:Dari (official language) 50%Pashtu (official language) 35%Turkic languages 11%
7 Religion 99% of Afghans are Muslim Islam is the religion practiced by most Afghans; it is central to Afghans' identity99% of Afghans are Muslim
8 Rural Life Most Afghans live in rural areas About ¾ of the population consists of farmers and nomadsOnly 12% of the land, however, is arableWhat problems might this lead to?
9 Afghan HistoryAfghanistan's location along the Silk/Spice Road has allowed the country to serve as an important link between east and west throughout history
10 Afghan History This location, however, has meant significant intervention from outsiders Great Britain & Russia fought over Afghanistan as far back as the 18th & 19th centuriesSoviet Union invaded in 1979 and installed a Communist governmentFrom , Afghanistan became a battleground of the Cold War between the US- USSR (with the U.S. supporting Afghans who resisted the Soviets)
11 Afghan HistorySoviet Union withdrew in 1989, but civil war erupted among factions of guerilla fightersCivil war continued until 1996, when hard-line group known as the Taliban seized powerTaliban seized power and imposed a strict interpretation of Islam
12 Taliban Pick 3 To Write Down Limited women's ability to work in public placesBanned girls from attending schoolRequired women to wear burqas in publicRequired men to wear beardsBanned music, sportsAllowed al-Qaeda & Osama bin Laden to operate within the country
13 Refugee CrisisDuring the 23 years of conflict, roughly 4 million Afghans became refugeesMost refugees fled to two main countries:IranPakistanThere are also an estimated 200,000 Afghans living in the U.S.
14 The link between September 11th and Afghanistan Afghans did NOT carry out the terrorist attacks on the U.S.Al-Qaeda, a terrorist network operating within Afghanistan and other places, didMany Afghans expressed their sympathy with the people of the U.S. after Sept. 11thAfter September 11th, the U.S. invaded Afghanistan and toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama bin LadenOn May 1st, bin Laden was killed byU.S. Forces in PakistanU.S. and NATO forces remain inAfghanistan today.
15 End of combat missions ended in 2014 Complete troop withdraw by 2016 U.S. troop withdraw:2014- from 32,800 to 9,800End of combat missions ended in 2014Complete troop withdraw by 20162,356 U.S. Soldiers Deaths19,964 Wounded18,000-20,000 Civilian Deaths
16 Just to Recap1979- U.S. supplies weapons to Afghan guerrilla fighters to fight against U.S.S.R. within Afghanistan.Some of the supplied guerrilla fighters will develop the Taliban (a harsh, controlling government, which will gain power).The Taliban will allow al-Qaeda & Osama bin Laden to operate within the country.QUESTION?- Did the Truman Doctrine lead to the attacks on September 11, 2001?
17 Afghanistan TodayAfghanistan now faces a number of challenges as it tries to rebuild after years of war. Some of these challenges include:PovertyEducationHealthGender equality
18 Poverty The majority of Afghans live on less than $1 a day Only 23% of Afghans have access to safe waterOnly 12% of Afghans have access to sanitationOnly 6% of Afghans have access to electricity
19 Education 67% of boys go to school, while only 37% of girls do Problems for school attendance:Lack of teachersDistance between home and schoolCultural constraints for girlsNot enough school buildings (esp. for girls)AUAF has around students
20 Health Average life expectancy for Afghans is around 60 One in ten children dies before the age of 5Many Afghans lack access to basic medical care60% of the population live within 2 hours of the nearest clinic
21 Gender EquityCultural restrictions lead to difficulty accessing education and health servicesOnly 12% of Afghan women can read and writeYet, Afghan women are important contributors to household income, especially in rural areas
22 Government In 2004 Hamid Karzai was elected to the presidency. Parliamentary elections were held in 2005.Local warlords, however, still hold power in many parts of the country. This contributes to the insecurity in Afghanistan.Current President: Mohammed Ashraf Ghani elected in 2014
24 Despite these challenges, Afghans remain hopeful about the future
25 What have you learned about Afghanistan? THE ENDWhat have you learned about Afghanistan?
26 Afghans: A Diverse People Major Ethnic Groups:Pashtuns 42%Takiks 27%Uzbeks 9%Hazaras 9%Others 13%
27 Sport/PastimeBazkashi, the national sport of Afghanistan, is a team game played on horsebackKite-fighting is also a popular pastime among Afghan youth where participants try to cut through the strings of their opponents' kites