2 Background ► As part of Prime Minister Macdonald’s National Policy: he built the CPRhe encouraged industrialization in the eastsettlement of the west► between 1896 to 1913 the greatest wave of immigration to Canada occurred: 3 million people
3 “Last Best West”Beginning in 1896 Clifford Sifton (minister of the interior in Laurier’s government) launched an aggressive campaign to encourage immigration to Canada.
6 Sifton’s Immigration Policy Continued Each white European immigrant family was offered 160 acres of free land.Sifton sought immigrants from across the U.S., Britain and Europe – these were most desirable.His efforts attracted large numbers of European farmers including Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Poles, Germans and DutchSifton’s policy excluded: Africans, Jews, Asians, East Indians and Southern Europeans. It was thought that they would not make good farmers or be easily assimilated into white, protestant cultureBetween 1891 and 1911 more than 2 million immigrants came to Canada.In 1905 the growing population led to the creation of 2 new provinces: Saskatchewan and Alberta.By 1911 over 80% of people in the Western provinces had been born outside of Canada.
9 Asian Immigrants Not everyone was welcome “B.C. must remain a white man’s country!”Canadian Society:Feared outsiders“Ethnocentric” believing one culture is superior to another
10 The response of Canada to Immigration (race related policies) Many Canadians in the early part of the 20th Century were racist. Canada’s early response to immigration reflects this both in government policy and in the response of Canadian citizens to the immigration of racial minorities.Canada encouraged Chinese immigration because of the construction of the trans-continental railway, and a need for cheap labor.Once the railway was finished the white Canadians felt a need to limit and eventually abolish all Asian immigration to Canada.Racist groups begin to form in Canada, including; the Anti-Asiatic league, which urged the government to end Asian immigration completely
11 Vancouver Riot against Asian immigration (Sept. 7, 1907) Summary Crowd gathers outside Vancouver’s City Hall, protesting Asian immigrationThey are concerned that Asian newcomers will take jobs from local residents (thought that Asians would work for less money) and that Asian businesses could soon control the economySeveral hundred people start attacking Japanese and Chinese people and businessesFinally, after 4 hours, Japanese-Canadians are able to drive the rioters awayIn response, the Federal government passes several laws that restrict Asian immigration to BC
12 The Chinese Head Tax►It was a federal tax imposed on immigrants from China between 1885 and 1923 (Tax that Chinese immigrants had to pay in order to enter Canada)►$50 head tax in 1885 – at the time of the completion of the CPR►The tax increased to $500 in 1903, the price of a house at the time or the equivalent of two years' salary for a sawmill or Cannery worker.►It was replaced on July 1, 1923 by the Exclusion Act, which barred all Chinese immigrants from Canada until As the rest of Canada celebrated “Canada Day” (July 1), for Chinese Canadians, this day was forever known as “Humiliation Day”.
15 Examples of Canadian responses to immigration: The Komagata Maru After 7 weeks at sea on May 23, 1914,a ship arrived in Vancouver harbour, carrying 376 passengers including women and children.The Sikh passengers wanted to live in Canada, but the ship was quarantined and the government denied them entry.Immigration officials then served passengers deportation papers and ordered the captain to leave. However, the Sikhs onboard (and those living in Canada) refused to listen.A month went and the ship would not leave. Government officials did not allow the steamer to take on food or water; no one was allowed to leave the ship.Finally, after a failed attempt by a tugboat to force the ship from Vancouver, the government called on the Navy to escort the Komagata Maru out of Canadian waters.The message from the government was clear: East Indians were not welcome in Canada, and the government of Canada would do its best to keep them out.
17 Canada’s response to the Holocaust Canada’s record for accepting Jews fleeing the Holocaust was among the worst in the Western world.As Nazi-inspired hatred spread through Europe, many Jews tried to head to safety in North America. However, Prime Minister MacKenzie King and Immigration Director F.C. Blair kept the number of Jewish refugees small.> Between the years 1933 and1945, less than 5,000 Jews wereaccepted into Canada.
18 The SS St LouisIn May 1939, 907 Jews left Nazi Germany aboard the SS St. Louis to escape Hitler’s persecution. They had visas allowing them to enter Cuba. But when they arrived in Havana harbour, Cuba denied the refugees entrance. The St. Louis then headed for America, but was turned away and not allowed to enter.Canada was the last hope for the refugees aboard that ship, but the Canadian government refused them permission to dock when they appeared of the east coast of Canada.
21 Immigration director Fred Blair’s infamous quote, “ None is too many”, pretty much sums up Canada’s acceptance of Jewish refugees during WWII.The ship was forced to return to Europe, where many of the passengers later died in concentration camps.
23 Immigration after WW2Displaced Persons – Impact on Canada (p.62 in Counterpoints)Millions of refugees had no homes after the war – no homes, possessions, or hope for the futureUN called these refugees displaced persons (DPs) – people forced from their homelands due to the warincluded concentration camp survivors and others uprooted by war165,000 immigrated to Canada
24 Displaced Persons – cont’ Challenges for Displaced Persons (DPs)could not speak Englishunable to practice their former trades and professionsPositivesChildren often absorbed English quickly at schooloften any job opened up new opportunities
25 Immigration Act of 1952The immigration Act passed in 1952 allowed Cabinet to control immigration through ***Orders-in-council, so they could admit, limit or prohibit immigration for almost any reason they wanted. This led to a significant amount of racial discrimination regarding new immigrants to Canada.***Order-in-Council is an order signed by the Governor General (or Lieutenant-Governor) on the advice of the prime minister (or premier) and Cabinet They allow laws and regulations to be passed without a parliamentary vote. They are used for necessary changes in law, and in the case of emergencies.
26 Immigration – Changing Policy Public opinion regarding race was soon changing in the mid-50’s and 1960’s and portions of Canada’s population began to protest the discriminatory nature of Canada’s immigration policies.The idea that Canada should be a “cultural mosaic” began to gain popularity.By the mid-late 1950s – demand for immigrant labour was so high that Canada’s doors swung wide open to accept new immigrants (“Brawn over brains”)Between million other immigrants moved to Canadaoften - exhausted by war, looking for a new lifemost immigrants settled in cities of central Canada (as opposed to immigrants after WWI who settled on farms in Western Canada)cultures, viewpoints, hard work enriched Canada in many waysolder areas of cities – vacated as veterans & families moved to the suburbs
27 1960’sMore open attitude towards people of other cultures and countriesIn 1962, new regulations removed most limits on immigrants of Asian, African and other origins1967: “colour-blind” policy- immigrants were to be chosen by points systembased on education and employment prospects.National and racial origins were no longer factors.
28 The Immigration Actremoved the racial discrimination found in previous legislationintroduced a ‘points’ system’ for rating applicants – a system still in use today. (“colour-blind”)gave preference to immigrants who, among other things:knew English or Frenchwere not too old/too young to take regular jobshad arranged employment in Canadahad a relative or family member in Canadahad proper education and trainingwere immigrating to a region of high employment
29 The Points SystemEducation: Generally one point for each year of primary and secondary education successfully completedVocational training: Points for vocational or on-the-job training.Experience : Points for relevant job experienceOccupational demand: Points based on the need in Canada for the type of work the applicant is qualified and willing to doArranged employment: Points if the applicant has arranged a job, as long as this employment does not take a job away from Canadian workersLocation: Points if the immigrant is willing to move to an area where his or her particular skills are needed
30 MulticulturalismWith changes to immigration policy came changes to the composition of Canadian society:1971 – Trudeau adopted a policy of multiculturalism- claimed it would give “vitality” to Canadian societyencouraged ethnic groups to express their cultures and values – making “a richer life for us all”Promotion of MulticulturalismHelped schools set up new coursesPromoted multicultural eventsSet up a council to study issuesMulticulturalism became law with the Multicultural Act of 1988
31 Progress in 1970’s (1978): 3 categories of immigrants created: Reduced barriers to immigrationTrudeau implemented the Citizenship Act of 1976, which:Eliminated gender discriminationGranted citizenship to children of overseas marriages when mother Canadian (previously only if father Canadian)Required adequate knowledge of one of 2 official languages before could become a citizen(1978): 3 categories of immigrants created:Family (relatives sponsor)Refugeesindependents
32 Progress in 1980’s More allowances for refugees fleeing from homelands During 1980’s immigrants with money and business skills were encouraged to come and create jobs through investmentsIn 1980’s Canada was becoming more and more multiculturalincrease in immigration from Asian countries
33 Immigration in 1990s Some troubles… By 1999 – more than half of all Canadian immigrants from Asia and Pacific RegionImmigrant poverty – in 2001 – 35% of immigrants lived below the poverty lineOther difficulties:Mulroney made an error by increasing the immigration rate in the middle of a recession (economic downturn)Usually – immigration increased when business cycle at its peak and decreased during recessionsImmigrants often forced into poor economic situations that lasted longer than recessionAlso – difficulty in having foreign credentials and education recognized in Canada – eg. Cab drivers with a PhD