Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2 Ethics in Psychological Research"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 2 Ethics in Psychological Research Course Lecturer: Alla ChavargaMonday 9:05-10:45am
2 If you have not already done so… ME atSubject: YOUR NAME Psych TANotice: NO CLASS Feb 17th (Holiday) AND Feb 20th (Conversion Day)
3 CHAPTER 2 Ethics in Psychological Research Origins of the APA ethics code and its five general principlesThe role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the research processThe ethical questions involved when completing research using children and those from special populationsDescribe how the ethics code applies to research that involves the InternetDescribe the arguments for and against the use of animals in psychological research
4 Questionable Practices Watson & Rayner (1920)Little AlbertLandis (1924)Rat BeheadingEthics – a set of standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession
5 Developing the APA Code of Ethics Late 30’s: An empirical approach to forming the code was utilized; the critical incidents technique.First APA code of ethics 1953Hobbs committeeAPA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct 2002 (2010 amendments)
6 Developing the APA Code of Ethics Guidelines for ethical behavior for the practice of research, clinical work, and teaching in psychologyApplies to all of us in the field of psychologyCode contains:5 general principles10 standards of practice
7 APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct General PrinciplesBeneficence and non-maleficenceConstantly weigh costs & benefits; protect from harm; produce greatest goodFidelity and responsibilityBe professional; constantly be aware of responsibility to societyIntegrityBe scrupulously honestJusticeAlways treat people fairlyRespect for peoples’ rights and dignitySafeguard individual rights; protect rights of privacy and confidentiality
8 Research and Publication Identify potential risksProtect participants from physical and psychological harmJustify remaining risksObtain informed consentTake care of participants after the study (debriefing)
9 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Judging benefits and costs: the IRB : In 1974, as part of the National Research Act, the federal government mandated that IRBs be in place for any college or university receiving federal funds for research. (IRB = Institutional Review Board)At least five people, including at least one member of the outside community and a minimum of one nonscientist.Determines whether the project meets ethical guidelinesSome research is exempt; expedited; full reviewKey factor: degree of risk to subjects
10 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Informed consent and deception in researchConsent: sufficient information to decide whether to participateDeception rationaleDesire to have subjects act naturallyMilgram (1963) obedience study as an exampleCover story effect of punishment on learningReal purpose limits of obedience to authorityNo consent needed in some circumstancessome survey, educational, archival, and observational research
11 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Elements of consentStudy’s basic descriptionEnough information to decide whether to participateHow long participation will takeMay quit at any timeConfidentiality and anonymity ensuredContact information given (researcher, IRB)Opportunity to obtain final results of the studySignatures
12 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Historical example of poor consentTuskegee syphilis studyWillowbrook hepatitis studyMK-ULTRA (CIA & LSD)Consent with special populationsChildrenassent also neededChildren and other special groups (e.g., prisoners)Special care to avoid feelings of coercion
13 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Treating participants wellDebriefingDehoaxingDesensitizingParticipant crosstalkCode allows partial debriefing followed by full report at completion of the studyResearch ethics and the InternetProblems with ensuring consentProblems with conducting effective debriefing
14 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animals The issue of animal rightsUsing animals in psychological researchAids both humans and animalsSometimes there is no alternative (tissue, simulation/computer model)The APA Code for animal research / The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)Justifying the studyCost-benefit analysisNo plausible alternativesCaring for the animalse.g., expertise with species, upkeep of animal healthUsing animals for educational purposes
15 Scientific Fraud Plagiarism Data falsification Varying degrees (all unethical)ReasonsRange from individual weakness to societal moral standardsPublish or perish climate in academia
16 SummaryAs psychological researchers, we adhere to a Code of Ethics regarding research with humans and animals.The APA code and IRBs help guide our decisions and actions in conducting research ethically, responsibly, and with integrity.
17 Lab Prep Your first experiment: TASK-SWITCHING “The Myth of Multitasking”Assumption: A person can switch their attention and effort between multiple tasks without loss of efficiency (speed and performance).
18 Lab PrepTask-set: effective intention to perform a task; configuring one's mental state (e.g. attention) to be in accordance with the specific operations demanded by the task.Switch cost: The difference in accuracy and performance between a task repeat (A-A) and a task switch (A-B)Task-Set Reconfiguration Theory: once the task set is implemented, it stays in a given state of activation of until it has to be changed, such as when a new task is presented. Switch costs arise from an executive control process that reconfigures the cognitive system to implement the relevant task set.
19 Lab Prep Things to keep in mind… The rationale for studying this phenomenonExplanation of task-set theory; what would it predict?Pay special attention to methodology; specific details in testing environmentWhat could be some shortcomings?Could anything else be responsible for your results besides your manipulation?