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Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims? YeoJu Chung, Associate Professor, Korea National University.

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Presentation on theme: "Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims? YeoJu Chung, Associate Professor, Korea National University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims? YeoJu Chung, Associate Professor, Korea National University of Education Kyunghee Du, JaMyoung Yi, & A-ra Lee

2 Contents  Introduction  Literature Review  Research Hypothesis  Method & Procedure  Results  Discussion & Conclusion

3 Introduction & Literature Review

4 Purpose Cyberbullying is increasing and one of counseling issues Victims of cyber bullying – depressive, anxious, sensitive, cautious, and react to a ggression, feelings of being ostracized and of loneliness, or sometimes suicide the importance of positive affect has been stressed in co unseling area Functions of enhancing positive affects have been focus ed also by some emotion researchers (e.g. Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998). how to solve cyberbullying problem –inducing positive affects will reduce negative psycholo gical effects from cyberbullying

5 Literature Review - Bullying  What is Bullying? (Olweus, 1993, 1999a)  Aggressive behavior or intentional harmdoing  Repeated and over time action  An imbalance of power in an interpersonal relationship  Someone intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict, and show aggressive behaviors  Verbal vs. Nonverbal Verbal actions: threatening, taunting, teasing, and calling namesVerbal actions: threatening, taunting, teasing, and calling names Nonverbal actions: hitting, pushing, kicking, pinching, and restrainingNonverbal actions: hitting, pushing, kicking, pinching, and restraining

6 Literature Review – Cyber Bullying  What is Cyber Bullying?  Bullying that involves the use of e-mail, instant messaging, text digital imaging messages and digital images sent via cellular phones, Web pages, Web logs(blogs), chat rooms or discussion groups, and other information communication technologies (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2006; Patchin & Hinduja, 2006; Shariff & Gouin, 2005; Willard, 2006)

7 Literature Review – Cyber Bullying Flaming: online fi ghts using electro nic messages with angry and vulgar l anguage Harassment: repe atedly sending na sty, mean, and ins ulting messages Denigration: sendi ng or posting goss ip about a person to damage reputa tion or friendships Impersonation: pr etending to be so meone else and se nding or posting material Outing: sharing p ersonal informatio n with others Exclusion: intenti onally excluding s omeone from an o nline group Cyberstalking: rep eated, intense har assment including threats  What is Cyber Bullying?  Nancy Willard, 2006  Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008

8 Literature Review – Cyber Bullying  Cyber Bullying Passes Current  7% 4%  National Children’s Home (NCH, 2002) Study: 7% via Internet chat rooms, and 4% through e-mail  57%  Keith and Martin (2004): 57% of students said that someone had said hurtful or angry things to them online  19%  Ybarra and Mitchell (2004a): 19% of young regular Internet users aged 10-17 were involved in online harassment  22%  British study (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006): 22% of the students aged 11-16 reported that they had been bullied in the cyber space at least once in the two months  21%  Williams and Guerra (2006): 21% of the students had ever been cyber bullied  53%  Afrab’s (2006) study: 53% of the respondents said that they had been bullied online  42.9%  Chung and Kim (2013): 42.9% of total students(n=1112) have experienced cyberbullying before

9 Literature Review – Cyber Bullying  Cyber bullying - More Harmful No punishment or social disapproval due to anonymityNo punishment or social disapproval due to anonymity Can carry their actions much more than they normally w ould (Williams, Harkins, and Latane,1981)Can carry their actions much more than they normally w ould (Williams, Harkins, and Latane,1981) Lose Power of Inhibition targets also cannot see the faces of the perpetratortargets also cannot see the faces of the perpetrator miscommunication between bullies and victims (Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008)miscommunication between bullies and victims (Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008) Can’t See Emotional Reaction A single act may be forwarded to hundreds or thousands of children over a period of timeA single act may be forwarded to hundreds or thousands of children over a period of time Feel repeatedly bulliedFeel repeatedly bullied Can’t predict Repetition

10 Literature Review – Cyber Bullying Depressed mood, loneliness, anxiety, frustration, in visibility, and helplessness (Geller, Goodstein, Silver, and Sternberg, 1974; Leary, 1990)Depressed mood, loneliness, anxiety, frustration, in visibility, and helplessness (Geller, Goodstein, Silver, and Sternberg, 1974; Leary, 1990) Feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging (Williams, Cheung, and Choi, 2000)Feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging (Williams, Cheung, and Choi, 2000) Feeling a loss of self-esteem and angry (Rigby, 200 8)Feeling a loss of self-esteem and angry (Rigby, 200 8) Victims of Cyber bullying

11 Literature Review – Focus on affect problems of victims in bullying  Affect problems of victims  self-evaluation and emotional coping skills (Andreou, 2001)  lack of emotional ability to prevent and resolve conflicts (Mahady-Wilton, 1997)  symptoms and suicidal thoughts (Roland, 2002)  depressed and stressful due to negative self- concept (Marsh, Parada, Craven and Finger, 2004)

12 Chung and Kim (2013) What kind of feeling did you have when you are bullied in the cyber space?

13 Chung and Kim (2013) Reactions after being cyberbullied – only cyberbullied middle school students

14 Positive emotions are able to restore the self’s capacity for self-regulati on (Tice et al., 2004) happy mood led to longer persistence and positive mood make people recover their energy that help to regulate themselves further Positive affects recharge the depleted self A primary function of self-regulation in adults is to maintain positive e motional mood and reduce the continued deterioration of negative mo od states (Morris, 1989) Positive affects help self-regulation positive affects serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-a ction repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual' s physical, intellectual, and social resources (Carver, 2003; Cosmides & Tooby, 2000; Fredrickson, 2005) Positive affects undo effects of negative affects Literature Review – Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect

15 Fredrickson and Joiner (2002) assessed the prediction that positive aff ects broaden the scopes of attention and cognition, and, by consequen ce, initiate upward spirals toward increasing emotional well-being Positive affects broaden functions of attention and cognition Positively valenced moods and emotions lead people to think, feel, and act in ways that promote both resource building and involvement with approach goals (Elliot & Thrash, 2002; Lyubomirsky, 2001) Positive affects enhance thought, feeling, and behavior and make us attain the goal Positive affects enhance thought, feeling, and behavior and make us attain the goal Niedenthal and Setterlund (1994) also suggested that happiness and s adness have emotion-congruent effects upon selective perception Mayer and his colleagues (1992) also tested mood-congruent effect in their experiment Positive affects make people remember positive factors Literature Review – Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect

16 Parkinson and his colleagues (1996) assumed that the world seems a more pleasant and welcoming place when one is in a happy mood Fearful individuals have been shown to have heightened estimates that risky, dangerous events will be part of their future (Lerner & Keltner, 2 001) Positive affects impact on perception and judgement Cohn and his colleagues (2009) suggested that positive affects lead to higher levels of ego resilience in the future Positive affects increase ego resilience Fredrickson (2001) said that the frequent experience of positive emoti on broadens thinking and actions and result in enduring personal reso urces In Aspinwall (1998)’s study, he tested that positive mood may play a b eneficial, multifaceted, and flexible role in self-regulatory processes Positive affects enhance coping ability Literature Review – Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect

17 Secure attachment and positive maternal control correlated positively with effective regulatory strategy use (Gillom et al., 2002) Frequent positive emotions during school were associated with higher l evels of student engagement and negative emotions with lower levels of engagement (Amy et al., 2008) Positive affects decline externalizing problems low levels of positive affectivity are associated with a number of clinica l syndroms, including social phobia, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disdorder, and the substance disorders (Gillom et al., 2002) Positive affects decline psychopathology good moods increased offers of help that involved reading and evaluati ng statements that participants believed would improve their mood (Is en & Simmond, 1978) Positive affects increase helping behavior Positive affectivity is a significant predictor of job satisfaction (Olekalns & Erwin, 1998; Agho, Price, Mueller (1992) Positive affects increase satisfaction of life Literature Review – Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect

18 Literature Review How to enhance positive affect – mood induction imagination Velten’s MIPs film/storymusic feedback social interaction gift facial expression combined MIPs the effect size Film/Story + instructions - the most significant combined (e.g. Velten + music, or Velten + feedback) - very significant (Westermann and his collegues’ meta analysis,1996)

19 Research Hypothesis

20  Experiment 1. Cyberbullying manipulation will make people have negative feelings and biases.   Participants in the cyberbullying manipulation condition will get larger points in negative moods and get fewer points in positive moods of self report adjective selection than participants in control group.   Participants in the cyberbullying manipulation condition will show higher negative biases when they interpret facial expression than participants in control group.  Experiment 2. Positive affect enhancement will make people have positive feelings, not biased, and memorize more positive factors.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will get larger points in positive moods and get fewer points in negative moods of self report adjective selection than participants in control group.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will show lower negative biases when they interpret facial expression than participants in control group   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will memorize more positive meaning words than participants in control group.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will memorize more words than participants in control group.

21 Research Hypothesis  Experiment 3. Positive affect enhancement will weaken negative feelings, biases in interpretation and memory, and negative movements from cyberbullying?   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will get larger points in positive moods and get fewer points in negative moods of self report adjective selection than participants in control group even after they are cyberbullied.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will show lower negative biases when they interpret facial expression than participants in control group even after they are cyberbullied.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will memorize more positive meaning words than participants in control group even after they are cyberbullied.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will memorize more words than participants in control group even after they are cyberbullied.   Participants in the positive affect enhancement condition will show lower negative face and hands movement.

22 Method & Procedure

23 Research Method - Participants  Participants Experiment group Control group Total Experiment 1 Sex Males9817 Females8715 Cyberbullied experience Yes437 No131225 Total171532 Experiment 2 Sex Males10 20 Females7714 Total17 34 Experiment 3 Sex Males171835 Females151429 Cyberbullying experience Yes5712 No272552 Total32 64

24 Research Method - Measures Experiment Mood Induction Self Report Interpret facial Expressions Emotional words memory Video Taping

25 ① Mood Induction (Velten + feedback) The Velten Mood Induction Procedure (Velten, 1967, 1968) The Velten Mood Induction Procedure (Velten, 1967, 1968) Used extensively by researchers to induce elated and depressed moods in the laboratory. The task consists of subjects being asked to read and "try to feel the mood suggested" by 60 self-referent elated or depressed statements, or 60 neutral statements. Selected both 30 positive sentences and 30 neutral sentences Tested effect of these sentences in experiment 2 Used 30 sentences right after feedback in experiment 3 Research Method - Measures

26 지금 정말 열정적이고 자신감이 넘친다.

27 이천은 쌀이 많이 나는 장소이다.

28 ② Self report - emotions Instrument for Measuring Emotions (Kang, Hahn, & Chon, 2000) developed by Kang et al. (2000) based on self-discrepancy theory consisting of 20 items rated on 7-point scale dejection-related emotion (depression), agitation-related emotion (anxiety), and positive feeling GFI of the 3 subscales is.995 Research Method - Measures

29 감정 형용사전혀 느끼지 않는다 중간정도 매우 많이 느낀다 1 무기력하다 0123456 2 불만스럽다 0123456 3 슬프다 0123456 4 실망스럽다 0123456 5 우울하다 0123456 6 의기소침하다 0123456 7 긴장되다 0123456 8 걱정스럽다 0123456 9 불안하다 0123456 10 두렵다 0123456 11 안절부절하다 0123456 12 초조하다 0123456 13 기쁘다 0123456 14 활기차다 0123456 15 만족스럽다 0123456 16 희망적이다 0123456 17 안도감 0123456 18 안심되다 0123456 19 안정감 0123456 20 편안하다 0123456 depression anxiety Positive feeling

30 ② Interpret facial expressions Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) and Neutral Faces (JACNeuF) (Matsumoto, & Ekman, 1988) (appendix G) Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE) and Neutral Faces (JACNeuF) (Matsumoto, & Ekman, 1988) (appendix G) developed by Matsumoto and Ekman (1988) anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise evidence for cross-cultural differences in levels of recognition (Matsumoto, 1992) selecting the intended emotion term were conducted and resulted in significant findings at the 70%, 75%, and 80% agreement levels Research Method - Measures

31 Contempt

32 Neutral

33 ③ Emotional words memory Emotional words memory test Emotional words memory test (Vasa, Carlino, London, & Min, 2006) (Vasa, Carlino, London, & Min, 2006) developed by Vasa et al. (2006)developed by Vasa et al. (2006) threat, positive, and neutral. Childrens valence ratingsthreat, positive, and neutral. Childrens valence ratings Cronbach’s alpha coefficients.91,.89, and.92 for threat, positive, and neutral words, respectivelyCronbach’s alpha coefficients.91,.89, and.92 for threat, positive, and neutral words, respectively Selected 10 positive words, 10 negative words, and 10 neutral words – randomly arrangedSelected 10 positive words, 10 negative words, and 10 neutral words – randomly arranged recall positive and negative emotional words, and non-emotional words by Nagae, & Moscovitch (2002)recall positive and negative emotional words, and non-emotional words by Nagae, & Moscovitch (2002) Research Method - Measures

34 챔피언벽죽음똑똑한생일선물 고막쟁반벽돌블록납치거리 살인연휴친구긴급암발목 방학파티총나무도둑숟가락 울타리폭탄부자전쟁실패활기찬

35 ④ Video Taping Recorded students’ face and hands movement with camcoder 3 experts made coding Coding sheet followed concepts of the new Facial Action Coding System (FACS) by Paul Ekman, Wallace V. Friesen, and Joseph C. Hager (2002) positive movement and negative movement. eyes (eg. a smile with eyes vs. a sneer with eyes), lips (eg. a smile with lips vs. a sneer with lips), head (eg. nodding vs. moving slantwise), and hands (eg. agreeing with hands vs. hiding a mouth or a face with hands) Research Method - Measures

36 N1N2…P35 _1 긍정적 눈웃음, 기분좋은 눈짓 미소, 입벌려 웃음 고개끄덕임, 동의하는 듯한 끄덕임 동의하는 손동작 부정적 불안, 초초한 눈짓, 마음에 들지 않는 듯한 눈짓 비웃는 듯한 웃음, 어이없다는 웃음 고개흔듦, 갸우뚱, 의심하는 듯한 고개 흔듦 불안한 손동작, 입가림, 얼굴가림 _2 긍정적 눈웃음, 기분좋은 눈짓 미소, 입벌려 웃음 고개끄덕임, 동의하는 듯한 끄덕임 동의하는 손동작 부정적 불안, 초초한 눈짓, 마음에 들지 않는 듯한 눈짓 비웃는 듯한 웃음, 어이없다는 웃음 고개흔듦, 갸우뚱, 의심하는 듯한 고개 흔듦 불안한 손동작, 입가림, 얼굴가림 _3 긍정적 눈웃음, 기분좋은 눈짓 미소, 입벌려 웃음 고개끄덕임, 동의하는 듯한 끄덕임 동의하는 손동작 부정적 불안, 초초한 눈짓, 마음에 들지 않는 듯한 눈짓 비웃는 듯한 웃음, 어이없다는 웃음 고개흔듦, 갸우뚱, 의심하는 듯한 고개 흔듦 불안한 손동작, 입가림, 얼굴가림 Codingsheet

37 Research Procedure Experiment 1 Cyberbullying Manipulation Experiment 2 Positive Mood Induction Experiment 3 Cyberbullying Manipulation Positive Mood Induction

38 Research Procedure - experiment 1

39

40

41 Research Procedure - experiment 2

42 Research Procedure - experiment 3

43 Results

44 EXPERIMENT 1 RESULT

45 Research Results FIGURE 7 Experiment 1_Feeling adjective selection Experiment 1 – Cyberbullying manipulation depressionanxietypositive feeling

46 Mean SquaredfF depression275.912114.017** anxiety62.87814.395* positive feeling1122.451118.187*** Research Results TABLE 5 Experiment 1_Repeated measures MANOVA of feeling adjective selection Experiment 1 – Cyberbullying manipulation ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 Using Wilks’ lambda, multivariate significance for the group classification main effect was established, F(3,28)= 8.714, p<.001

47 Research Results FIGURE 8 Experiment 1_Feeling adjective selection Experiment 1 – Cyberbullying manipulation positivenegative

48 FIGURE 10 Negative assumption frequency FIGURE 11 Negative 2 (sadness, surprise) assumption frequency Research Results Experiment 1 – Cyberbullying manipulation no. of participants no. of negative assumption no. of participants no. of negative assumption

49 EXPERIMENT 2 RESULT

50 Research Results FIGURE 12 Experiment 2_Feeling adjective selection Experiment 2 – Mood induction depressionanxietypositive feeling

51 Mean SquaredfF depression72.05914.133 anxiety89.47115.491* positive feeling868.368132.485*** Research Results TABLE 9 Experiment 2_Repeated measures MANOVA of feeling adjective selection ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 Experiment 2 – Mood induction Using Wilks’ lambda, multivariate significance for the group classification main effect was established, F(3,30)= 10.668, p<.001

52 Research Results FIGURE 13 Experiment 2_ Photo facial expression assumption Experiment 2 – Mood induction positivenegative

53 Research Results FIGURE 14 Experiment 2_ Negative assumption frequency Experiment 2 – Mood induction no. of participants no. of negative assumptions

54 Research Results FIGURE 15 Emotional words memory test Experiment 2 – Mood induction Mean Square dfF no. of positive words 14.23515.930* no. of negative words 1.88211.180 no. of total words 28.26515.184* TABLE 13 MANOVA *p<.05 Wilks’ Lambda was.782 [F(1,32) = 2.791, p=.057]

55 EXPERIMENT 3 RESULT

56 Research Results FIGURE 16 Experiment 3_Feeling adjective selection Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction depressionanxietypositive feeling

57 Mean SquaredfF depression501.73529.659*** anxiety338.09425.367** positive feeling3125.906233.712*** Research Results TABLE 15 Experiment 3_Repeated measures MANOVA of feeling adjective selection ***p<.001, **p<.01, *p<.05 Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction Using Wilks’ lambda, multivariate significance for the group classification main effect was established, F(6,57)= 11.320, p<.001

58 Research Results FIGURE 17 Experiment 3_ Photo facial expression assumption positivenegative Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction

59 Research Results FIGURE 18 Experiment 3_ Negative assumption frequency Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction no. of participants no. of negative assumptions

60 Research Results FIGURE 19 Emotional words memory test Mean Square dfF no. of positive words 20.25019.049** no. of negative words 3.51612.364 no. of total words 11.39112.108 TABLE 19 MANOVA **p<.01, *p<.05 Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction Wilks’ Lambda was.836 [F(3,60) = 3.922, p<.05]

61 Research Results FIGURE 20 % of memorized words TABLE 20 MANOVA *p<.05 Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction Mean Square dfF % of positive words 20.25019.049* % of negative words 3.51612.364* Wilks’ Lambda was.901 [F(2,61) = 3.361, p<.05]

62 Research Results FIGURE 21 Experiment 3_ facial and hands expression positivenegative Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction

63 Research Results TABLE 22 Experiment 3_Repeated measures ANOVA of facial and hands expression ***p<.001 Experiment 3 – Cyberbullying, Mood induction Mean SquaredfF positive expressions33.16729.515*** negative expressions7.29222.298 Using Wilks’ lambda, multivariate significance for the group classification main effect was established, F(4,59)= 6.236, p<.001

64 Discussion  The negative effects of cyberbullying were revealed from experiment 1 and 3   self report feeling adjectives selection, emotional words memory and recording faces and hands movement   cyberbullying make students socially anxious, loneliness, frustration, sadness, and helplessness (Geller, Goodstein, Silver, & Sternberg, 1974; Kowalski, Limber, & Agaston, 2008; Leary, 1990; Rigby, 2008; Williams, Cheung, & Choi, 2000)   facial expression photo interpretation - numbers of negatively biased interpretation of both groups were not significantly different.

65 Discussion  facial expression photo interpretation - numbers of negatively biased interpretation of both groups were not significantly different.   didn’t support other researchers’ findings (e.g. Lanzetta and Kleck, 1970; Surguladze et al, 2004; Carton et al., 1999; Murphy et al., 1999; Joorman, & Gotlib, 2006)   some researchers found similar results that depressed individuals didn’t have deficits in the processing of emotional facial expressions (e.g. Cooley & Nowicki, 1989; Mikhailova, Vladimirova, Iznak, & Tsusulkovskaya, 1996; Walker, McGuire, & Bettes, 1984).   there are differences in the intensity of emotional facial expressions (Joorman and Gotlib, 2006),   cultural differences of display rules - Individuals can amplify or deamplify their expressions and people can mask or conceal their emotions (Matsumoto et al., 2005; Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey, 1988; Hofstede, 1980; Wallbott & Scherer, 1986; Gudykunst & Nishida, 1984)

66 Discussion  The positive effects of positive mood induction were revealed from experiment 2 and 3   self report feeling adjectives selection, emotional words memory and recording faces and hands movement   positive affect generation makes students recover quickly from their stressful events (e.g. Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson, Mancuso, Branigan, & Tugade, 2000; Kirschenbaum, Tomarken, and Humphery, 1985)   facial expression photo interpretation - numbers of negatively biased interpretation of both groups were not significantly different. frequency data shows a little difference

67 Limitation & Further Research   tested only middle school students, and conducted the experiment in 30 minutes.   other students (e.g. elementary school students) for general conclusion   experiment time was a little short   Facial photo - not only frequency test but also intensity test (for a review, see Matsumoto, & Ekman, 1988, 1989).   need to think about how to induce positive affect in counseling situation.   cognitively self-referent statement and feedback methods   more sophisticated methods for our clients   real cyberbullying situation should be conducted.   driven by experimental situation   in real situation, there might be more extra variables which I cannot control   we need to test the effect of positive affect to really cyberbullied students.

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