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12/3/2002BAE 4353 1 Electric Motors Classification / types –DC Motors –AC Motors –Stepper Motors –Linear motors Function –Power conversion - electrical.

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Presentation on theme: "12/3/2002BAE 4353 1 Electric Motors Classification / types –DC Motors –AC Motors –Stepper Motors –Linear motors Function –Power conversion - electrical."— Presentation transcript:

1 12/3/2002BAE 4353 1 Electric Motors Classification / types –DC Motors –AC Motors –Stepper Motors –Linear motors Function –Power conversion - electrical into mechanical –Positional actuation – electrical signal to position

2 12/3/2002BAE 4353 2 DC Motors –DC Motors Fundamental characteristics –Basic function Types and applications –Series –Shunt –Combination –Torque characteristics Modelling

3 12/3/2002BAE 4353 3 Fundamental characteristics of DC Motors End view Time 0 End view Time 0+ Shifting magnetic field in rotor causes rotor to be forced to turn

4 12/3/2002BAE 4353 4 Nature of commutation Power is applied to armature windings –From V+ –Through the +brush –Through the commutator contacts –Through the armature (rotor) winding –Through the – brush –To V- Rotation of the armature moves the commutator, switching the armature winding connections Stator may be permanent or electromagnet

5 12/3/2002BAE 4353 5 DC motor wiring topologies

6 12/3/2002BAE 4353 6 Series Wound DC motors Armature and field connected in a series circuit. Apply for high torque loads that do not require precise speed regulation. Useful for high breakaway torque loads. –locomotives, hoists, cranes, automobile starters Starting torque –300% to as high as 800% of full load torque. Load increase results in both armature and field current increase –Therefore torque increases by the square of a current increase. Speed regulation –Less precise than in shunt motors »Diminished load reduces current in both armature and field resulting in a greater increase in speed than in shunt motors. –No load results in a very high speed which may destroy the motor. »Small series motors usually have enough internal friction to prevent high-speed breakdown, but larger motors require external safety apparatus.

7 12/3/2002BAE 4353 7 Shunt wound DC motors Field coil in parallel (shunt) with the armature. –Current through field coil is independant of the armature. »Result = excellent speed control. Apply where starting loads are low –fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps, machine tools Starting torque –125% to 200% full load torque (300 for short periods).

8 12/3/2002BAE 4353 8 Compound wound DC motors Performance is roughly between series-wound and shunt-wound Moderately high starting torque Moderate speed control Inherently controlled no-load speed –safer than a series motor where load may be disconnected »e.g. cranes

9 12/3/2002BAE 4353 9 Permanent magnet DC motors

10 12/3/2002BAE 4353 10 Permanent Magnet DC Motors –Have permanent magnets rather than field windings but with conventional armatures. Power only to armature. –Short response time –Linear Torque/Speed characteristics similar to shunt wound motors. Field magnetic flux is constant Current varies linearly with torque. –Self-braking upon disconnection of electrical power Need to short + to – supply, May need resistance to dissipate heat. –Magnets lose strength over time and are sensitive to heating. Lower than rated torque. Not suitable for continuous duty May have windings built into field magnets to re-magnetize. –Best applications for high torque at low speed intermittent duty. Servos, power seats, windows, and windshield wipers.

11 12/3/2002BAE 4353 11 Modeling DC motors A linear speed/torque curve can be used to model DC motors. This works well for PM and compound designs and can be used for control models for narrow ranges for the other configurations Model will assume! –Linearity –Constant thermal characteristics –No armature inductance –No friction in motor

12 12/3/2002BAE 4353 12 DC Motor modeling Motor equations From the circuit Substituting the above: For stalled rotor torque And no-load speed In terms of no-load speed torque/speed equation is: Power is: Max power is: Units:

13 12/3/2002BAE 4353 13 Application Use motor voltage and no-load speed to calculate K t K t = K e in SI units Use stalled rotor torque, V, and K e to find R –Note, R varies with speed and cannot be measured at rest See web download for explanation of K t, K e : Development of Electromotive Force.pdf

14 12/3/2002BAE 4353 14 DC motor control – H-bridge Switches control direction –“A” switches closed for clockwise –“B” switches for counter- clockwise PWM for speed control –“A’s” duty cycle for clockwise speed –“B’s” duty cycle for counter- clockwise speed Can be configured to brake –Bottom “B” and “A” to brake

15 12/3/2002BAE 4353 15 H-Bridge implementation Elements in box are available as single IC

16 12/3/2002BAE 4353 16 Brushless designs Commutation is done electronically –Encoder activated switching –Hall effect activated switching –Back EMF driven switching PM armature Wound/switched fields Application –Few wearing parts (bearings) –Capable of high speed –Fractional HP Servos Low EMC

17 12/3/2002BAE 4353 17 Stepper Motors Description –Generally a two phase motor –permanent magnet rotor and wound fields –Rotor normally has many poles 200 poles = 1.8 degrees per step –Used primarily for position or velocity control –Typically no position feedback Torques are managed so that an intended step is always achieved –Accelerations, decelerations and loads must be managed intelligently Two general types of windings –Unipolar –Bi-polar

18 12/3/2002BAE 4353 18 Winding configurations Bi-polar design –6 wire Unipolar design –4 wire

19 12/3/2002BAE 4353 19 AC Motors –Fundamental characteristics –Types Fractional horsepower (single phase) Integral –Single phase (Cap start Induction run) –Three phase –NEMA Torque characteristics –Modelling

20 12/3/2002BAE 4353 20 Fractional horsepower designs –Shaded Pole (low starting torque, simple, cheap) uses a short circuited coil embedded in face of field to cause one side of field to be magnetized before the other –Split phase (low starting torque) Two windings (2-phase), one with high resistance hence different RL and phase Centrifugal switch on starting winding –Capacitor Start Induction Run (medium starting torque) Two windings (2-phases) Capacitor used on second winding to create leading phase Centrifugal switch on starting winding –Universal? (intermittent use, brushes!) DC motor with inductance managed to allow AC operation –Synchronous (clocks, synchronization) Permanent magnet rotor always in phase with AC

21 12/3/2002BAE 4353 21 AC motor model See Siemens AC motor info for modeling info.

22 12/3/2002BAE 4353 22 AC Motors Relationship between number of poles and motor synchronous speed Squirrel cage motors must operate with some slip.5 to 8% to allow the rotor to be magnetized. –Actual speed is synchronous speed reduced by the slip. PolesSynchronous Speed (RPM) 23600 41800 61200

23 12/3/2002BAE 4353 23 Squirrel Cage Rotor Seimens AG, 2002

24 12/3/2002BAE 4353 24 Inducing magnetism in the rotor Difference between angular velocity of rotor and angular velocity of the field magnetism causes squirrel cage bars to cut the field magnetic field inducing current into squirrel cage bars. This current in turn magnetizes the rotor

25 12/3/2002BAE 4353 25 Torque/speed curve

26 12/3/2002BAE 4353 26 Typical starting current

27 12/3/2002BAE 4353 27 Motor characteristics Enclosure / frame Voltage / frequency 3 or 1 phase Poles / speed Service factor –Fraction of rated HP that motor can be operated at Insulation class/ Temp rise – (operating temperature compatible) NEMA Design A,B,C,D, etc. (Torque curve type) –See next page Efficiency 60 Hz50 Hz 115380 200400 230425 460220/380 575

28 12/3/2002BAE 4353 28 NEMA Torque characteristics summarized NEMA DESIGN STARTING TORQUE STARTING CURRENT BREAK- DOWN TORQUE FULL LOAD SLIP TYPICAL APPLICATIONS ANormalHigh LowMach. Tools, Fans BNormal Same as Design "A" CHighNormalLowNormal Loaded compressor Loaded conveyor DVery highLow-------HighHigh Punch Press

29 12/3/2002BAE 4353 29 NEMA Motor Characteristics DesignLocked Rotor Torque % FL Pull-up Torque % FL Breakdown Torque % FL Locked Rotor Current % FL Slip % Efficiency A70-27565-190175-300NA0.5-5Med-High B (most common) 70-27565-190175-300600-7000.5-5Med-High C200-285140-195190-225600-7001-5Med D275NA275600-7005-8Low E74-19060-140160-200800-10000.5-3High

30 12/3/2002BAE 4353 30 PWM Variable Frequency Drives Variable frequency drives use AC to DC converter then a DC to AC converter (inverter) –Inverter frequency and voltage output can be varied to allow motor speed to be varied. –Very efficient and cost effective variable speed for 1 HP and up

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