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GRAMMAR 101: PRONOUNS Language Arts Miss Phillips.

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1 GRAMMAR 101: PRONOUNS Language Arts Miss Phillips

2 UNIT OBJECTIVES  1. Students will identify personal, indefinite, and possessive pronouns and recognize antecedents of pronouns.  2. Students will demonstrate control over the agreement of pronouns with antecedents.  3. Students will understand and utilize the various kinds of pronouns.

3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS  A pronoun is a word THAT TAKES THE PLACE OF ONE OR MORE NOUNS.  The most frequently used pronouns are called PERSONAL PRONOUNS.  The words she and it in the sentence below are personal pronouns. Dana has a favorite folktale, and she tells it often.

4  Pronouns that are used to refer to PEOPLE OR THINGS are called personal pronouns.  A subject pronoun IS A PERSONAL PRONOUN USED AS THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE.  An object pronoun IS A PERSONAL PRONOUN USED AS THE DIRECT OR INDIRECT OBJECT IN A SENTENCE. I will read that fable. (subject pronoun) Jesse told me about the story. (object pronoun)

5 PERSONAL PRONOUNS SingularPlural Used as Subjects I you he, she, it we you they Used as Objectsme you him, her, it us you them

6 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Personal Pronouns Directions: Circle each pronoun and label it subject or object. 1. I read “The Bundle of Sticks,” a fable by Aesop. 2. It taught me the value of cooperation. 3. A man had four sons, and they always fought. 4. They started an argument in the morning and continued it all day. 5. He became impatient and scolded them.

7 USING PRONOUNS CORRECTLY  People sometimes confuse pronouns in the nominative and objective cases. They write or say ME when they should use I. They use WE when they should use US.  Remember to use a subject pronoun as the subject. Use an object pronoun as the object of a verb. Subjects are who or what are DOING the action. Objects are who or what is RECEIVING the action.

8 EXAMPLES  She owns a collection of fables. SUBJECT  He told her an amusing fable. OBJECT  The fable entertained us. OBJECT Be sure to use a subject pronoun in a compound subject and an object pronoun in a compound object.  Richard and I recited the fable.  Jennifer helped Richard and me.

9 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Using Pronouns Correctly: Directions: Circle the correct pronoun in each sentence. 1. ( I, Me ) am the strongest power. 2. How will you show ( I, me )? 3. You and ( I, me ) will have a contest. 4. A traveler is approaching ( we, us ). 5. I see his dog and ( he, him ). STOP

10 PRONOUNS & ANTECEDENTS  The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its ANTECEDENT. Example 1. Albert read “Sleeping Beauty.” He found it exciting. In this example, the noun Albert is the antecedent of the pronoun He. “Sleeping Beauty” is the antecedent of the pronoun it.

11 CONTINUED…  The pronoun must agree with its antecedent in NUMBER (singular or plural) and GENDER. Example 2. The king and queen were proud of the baby girl, and they loved her dearly. In this example, the pronoun they agrees with its antecedent, The king and queen. The pronoun her agrees with its antecedent, the baby girl.

12 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Pronouns and Antecedents: Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct pronoun, and then circle its antecedent. 1. The bear made a promise. __________ promised the family great wealth. 2. The man spoke with his children. He told __________ about the bear’s request. 3. The youngest daughter became worried. The bear’s request frightened __________. 4. The girl listened to her family. They said, “If __________ go, the bear promises __________ will be rich.” 5. Finally the girl told her father and her brothers and sisters, “__________ will go because I love __________.”

13 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS  Some personal pronouns indicate ownership or possession. These pronouns are called POSSESSIVE pronouns, and they replace possessive forms of nouns.  A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN is a pronoun in the possessive case. It shows who or what has something.  Some possessive pronouns are used before nouns. They replace the name of the person or thing that has something. Aesop’s fables are famous. His fables are famous. A fable is a brief tale. Its characters are often animals.

14 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS SingularPlural Used Before Nouns my you her, his, its our your their Used Alonemine yours hers, his, its ours yours theirs Other possessive pronouns stand alone in a sentence. This book is yours. Aesop’s Fables is a favorite of mine. Possessive Pronouns

15  Possessive pronouns DO NOT contain an apostrophe.  DO NOT confuse the possessive pronoun its with the word it’s.  It’s is a CONTRACTION.

16 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Possessive Pronouns: Directions: Write a possessive pronoun to replace each underlined word or phrase. 1. The boy walked beside the horse; the man rode on the horse’s back. 2. Next a woman gave the woman’s opinion, and they followed that advice and rode together. 3. The man and the boy’s weight was too great. 4. The horse collapsed, and the man and boy worried about the horse’s health. 5. They carried the horse on the man’s and the boy’s shoulders.

17 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS  An INDEFINITE pronoun does not refer to a particular person, place, thing, or idea.  Like possessive pronouns, indefinite pronouns can be used alone or with nouns. Has any student read this Native American folktale? Have any read “The Voice of the River”?

18 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Always SingularAlways Plural another everybody no one anybody everyone nothing anyone everything one anything much somebody each neither someone either nobody something both few many others several When used alone, indefinite pronouns may be singular or plural. Indefinite Pronouns

19 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS  When an indefinite pronoun is used as the SUBJECT of a sentence, the indefinite pronoun may be SINGULAR or PLURAL, depending on the noun that follows. Indefinite pronouns that change their number include ALL, ANY, MOST, NONE, and SOME.  Some of the people are familiar with this folktale. PLURAL  Most of this tale takes place in Africa. SINGULAR  Most of the characters are animals. PLURAL

20 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS  Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in NUMBER.  Many are happy to share their folktales. PLURAL  Each must be willing to wait his or her turn. SINGULAR

21 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Indefinite Pronouns: Directions: Circle the correct singular or plural indefinite pronoun in each sentence. 1. ( Everyone, Many ) likes to read an exciting myth. 2. ( Each, Many ) are originally from Greece. 3. ( One, Others ) from Greece is about a father and son. 4. ( Anyone, Few ) were able to guess the myth’s ending. 5. ( Both, One ) of the mythical characters live on the island of Crete.

22 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative Pronouns: The Correct Use of “Who,” “Which,” and “That”  Relative pronouns are PRONOUNS THAT REFER TO A NOUN MENTIONED BEFORE AND OF WHICH WE ARE ADDING MORE INFORMATION. Rule #1  Use “who” or “that” only when REFERRING TO PERSONS.  “Who” is used only when referring to PEOPLE.  “That” can be used for PEOPLE, OBJECTS, THINGS, OR ANIMALS. NEVER use “that” to describe a specific person, only for a group of people or type of person.

23 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Examples:  The woman who called you is Ms. Smith. 2. The citizen groups are the ones that you should talk to. 3. The person who called you was a salesman.

24 RELATIVE PRONOUNS Rule #2  Use “which” to refer to objects and animals (things). NEVER use “which” when referring to people. Examples: 1. Gary lost the keys which you had given him. 2. The elephant which stampeded was massive.

25 PRACTICE Guided Practice: Relative Pronouns: Directions: Write “who,” “that,” or “which” in each blank. 1. The money __________ was stolen was never recovered. 2. The lady ___________ is wearing a yellow skirt is Tim’s grandmother. 3. The students ____________ were absent had a different assignment.

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