THINK-PAIR-SHARE HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE TEXTBOOK ISN’T ALL LIES?
EARLY HUMANS Clouded in mystery. Little recorded evidence. What we dig up. Some basic facts: People have always had : Religion language Culture Various beliefs exist regarding early humans History is a story- NARRATIVE Hunter-gatherers vs Agriculture
WARMTH Writing Agriculture River Civilizations Metallurgy THeocracies
THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION- TRADITIONAL NARRATIVE 10,000 years ago- human began practicing purposeful agriculture; different crops based on location Population increase- political structure Established formal communities to pool resources Hunter, gathering persisted Africa, Asia, N America, became tools of cultural diffusion Metalworking emerged
CIVILIZATION What are the Core Features? 2 minutes with a partner (1) Cities, (2) political systems, (3) specialization, (4) Status distinctions, (5) collaborative building (6) permanent records, (7) trade, (8) investment in science, technology Earliest Civilizations almost ALWAYS by rivers.
#1 TIGRIS-EUPHRATES CIVILIZATION Civilization founded, 4,000 BCE early innovations: metal, pottery, transportation, legal system Sumerians developed writing- CUNEIFORM Epic of Gilgamesh- one of earliest examples of literature used art to represent gods advanced math to understand seasons Built ziggurats to worship professional priests Politics City states with divine ruling king Hammurabi’s Code- Babylonian king. One of the earliest known WRITTEN legal codes Kings, nobles, priests controlled land, wealthy & slaves Trade- Indus Valley Religion- Mostly polytheistic- EXCEPTION: Zorostrianism (Persian) monotheistic Babylonians followed, then Assyrians, Persians, Jews
THE JEWISH/SEMITIC PEOPLES 2000 BCE/BC- Abraham called by God New nation Enslaved by Egyptians- Moses 10 Commandments Government- Monarchy/Theocracy because King was second in command to God who spoke through prophets Beliefs: 1 God Torah- Old Testament
PHOENICIANS 1.1100 BCE/CE 2.East coast Mediterranean 3.Tyre and Sidon 4.Sea traders 5.Hooked on phonics- 22 letter alphabet- precursor to ours.
# 2 NILE CIVILIZATIONS 2 nd site of civilization, c. 3,000 BCE on North African Geography: Nile – trade and water for agriculture isolated nature, self sufficient resources Trade: with Nubia (Africa) up and down Nile river Politics Pharaoh ruled as king and god constructed elaborate pyramids based on beliefs of afterlife Innovation focused on math, medicine, writing heiroglyphics, bright art Monumental architecture: Pyramids How does Egypt compare to Mesopotamia during this time period?
#3 INDIAN CIVILIZATIONS c. 2,500 distinct Indus emerged with trade contacts in Mesopotamia Two early large cities Mohenjo-daro Harappa Vedic Age- pre-classical Invasion by Northern Aryans Brought the Vedas- sacred books writing (Sanskrit) Caste System: Brahmans, kshatriyas(warrior), Vaisyas (traders/farmers), Sudras (common workers), Untouchables. Unclear as to destruction of civilization: Invaders or Natural calamity
#4 CHINESE CIVILIZATIONS c. 2,000 Shang dynasty emerged in complete isolation along the Huanghe River, based on leadership of warrior class Politics: Mandate of Heaven- the emperor rules by the authority of the gods Religion based in nature Elaborate building projects suggest strong, central control
#5: AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 1.Chavin Andes Region Potatoes, maize Metallurgy Canals Foundation of later INca 2. Olmec Location: Central America Trade: Jade NO RIVER!!! Calendar- religious Polytheistic Disappeared abt. 400 BCE Foundation of later Maya/Aztec
MAJOR SHIFTS: THE 5 THEMES IN THIS PERIOD Foundational civilizations Technology & Building: wheel, writing, astronomy, mathematics Political Systems: Hereditary or Divine Monarchies City-State or Empire Religious Ideas which will have powerful influence LATER… Asia focused on nature in harmony with man Mesopotamia, Africa focused on distinction between man & nature Jewish, significant regional state in MEast-