Presentation on theme: "Developing Physical Fitness. Physical Activity and Health u 1996: : ä “Individuals who engage in moderate intensity exercise for at least 30 minutes for."— Presentation transcript:
Physical Activity and Health u 1996: : ä “Individuals who engage in moderate intensity exercise for at least 30 minutes for most, or preferably all, days of the week, can improve their health and decrease their risk for disease.” u Additional health benefits can be derived from increasing the time and/or intensity of physical activity. u It’s never too late to be active!
Physical Fitness u Ability of the body’s systems to function efficiently and effectively. u One is “physically fit” if they have the ability to: ä “carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies.”
Fitness and Mortality Moving from the lowest fitness category (bottom 20% as assessed by time on a treadmill stress test) to the next 40% category, reduces risk of death from all causes by 58%. Moving to the top 40% or athletic category lowers risk by 65%
Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health u Hypokinetic diseases ä Diseases caused by insufficient physical activity, often in conjunction with inappropriate dietary practices. u Hypertension (high blood pressure) u Heart disease u Chronic low back pain u Obesity
Physical Health Benefits u Enhanced cardiovascular function u Reduction of many CV disease risk factors u Increase ability to perform tasks of daily living u Reduced risk of muscle and joint injury u Improved work performance u Improved physical appearance and self-image u Energy u Resistance to fatigue
Psychological Health Benefits u Reduction of susceptibility to depression and anxiety u Management of stress u Enhancement of self-concept and esteem u Socialization through participation in physical activities u Mitigate the debilitating effects of old-age or retain a more desirable level of health for a longer period of time
Effects of Training Lower pulse rate Larger stroke volume Lower rise in blood pressure Slower respiration rate Lower rate of lactic acid formation Faster return to “normal”
Effects of Training Greater cardiorespiratory efficiency. Greater endurance. More “work” can be performed at less cost. Improvement in fitness components. Coordination and timing of movements are better.
Principles of Fitness Training ä Principle of overload To improve, one must perform more than one’s normal amount of exercise. “Placing greater stress on the body than it is accustomed to.” u Principle of specificity ä Programs should be designed in relation to specific goals in mind.
Energy Production for Physical Activity u Use of ATP as energy to perform muscular activity. Two ways to produce ATP: u Anaerobic system ä Without oxygen ä High energy expenditure, short time u Aerobic system ä With oxygen ä Lower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of time
Physical Fitness u Health fitness ä Body composition ä Cardiorespiratory endurance ä Flexibility ä Muscular endurance ä Muscular strength u Performance or skill- related fitness ä Agility ä Balance ä Coordination ä Power ä Reaction Time ä Speed
Body Composition u Percentage of body weight composed of fat as compared with fat-free or lean tissue. ä Obesity is associated with numerous health problems and earlier mortality. ä In 2004, and estimated 62% of adults were either overweight or obese, and 13% of children were overweight. u Determination of the cause of obesity is important.
Body Composition u Body composition is primarily influenced by nutrition and physical activity. u Energy balance is important to achieving a favorable body composition. u Energy expenditure through: ä basal metabolism (maintenance of essential life functions) ä work (including exercise)
Energy Balance u Number of calories taken into the body as food -Number of calories expended Energy or caloric balance u Caloric expenditure ä Neutral balance »Caloric intake equals expenditure. ä Positive balance »More calories consumed than expended. ä Negative balance »More calories are expended than consumed.
Body Composition Improvement u Decreasing percentage of fat ä Decrease caloric intake through diet. ä Increase caloric expenditure through physical activity and exercise. ä Moderate decrease in caloric intake and moderate increase in caloric expenditure. u Follow sound practices ä Obsession with weight loss, in conjunction with many other factors, may contribute to the development of an eating disorder.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance u Body’s ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscles to perform physical activity. u Most important component of health fitness. u Helps prevent hypokinetic disease. u Concerned with the aerobic efficiency of the body.
Planning a Fitness Program u Threshold of training ä Minimal level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefits. u Target zone ä Defines the upper limits of training and the optimal level of exercise. u FITT formula ä Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type ä Needs and goals of individual ä Program should meet the goals of the individual
Target Zone u HR MAX =220 bpm - age u Target zone = 60% to 80% HR MAX u Lower threshold target HR= HR MAX x 60% u Upper threshold target HR= HR MAX x 80% u Calculations for a 20-year-old ä HR MAX =220-20=200 bpm ä Lower threshold = 200 bpm x 60%=120 bpm ä Upper threshold = 200 bpm x 80%=160 bpm
FITT formula u Frequency ä Number of sessions each week u Intensity ä Degree of effort put forth by the individual during exercise. u Time ä Duration of activity u Type ä Mode of exercise being performed
Cardiorespiratory Endurance u Frequency: 4 to 5 times per week u Intensity:60% to 80% HR MAX u Time:20 - 60 minutes u Type:Aerobic activities –Jogging –Running –Walking –Dancing –Cross Country Skiing –Biking –Swimming
Muscular Strength and Endurance u Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or a muscle group to exert a single force against a resistance. u Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force repeatedly or over a period of time. u Maintenance of proper posture; protect joints. u Production of power to enhance performance. u Use it or lose it!
Hypertrophy The increase in size of muscle cells due to physical activity or exercise.
The decrease in size of muscle cells due to inactivity Atrophy
Flexibility u Maximum range of motion possible at a joint u Joint specific: better range of motion in some joints than in others. u Can prevent muscle injuries; improve low-back pain u Decreased flexibility can be caused by: ä Sedentary lifestyle (lack of use of muscles) ä Age ä High amounts of body fat ä Stress
Flexibility u Improvement of flexibility ä Ballistic stretching »Momentum generated from repeated bouncing to stretch. »Not recommended- may overstretch the muscle. ä Static stretching »Slowly moving into a stretching position and holding for a certain period of time (10-30 seconds; 5 times). ä Contract-relax technique »Relaxing of the muscle to be stretched by contracting the opposite muscle (hamstrings/quadriceps)
Conducting Fitness Programs u Make fitness enjoyable. u Establish goals and a plan of action to attain them. u Monitor progress. u Provide for maintenance of fitness. u Fitness requires personal commitment.