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26 January 2013 English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 1 Curriculum Leadership and Management for English.

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Presentation on theme: "26 January 2013 English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 1 Curriculum Leadership and Management for English."— Presentation transcript:

1 26 January 2013 English Language Education Section Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 1 Curriculum Leadership and Management for English Language Education Improving the Implementation of Whole-school Language Policy Enhancing the Interface across Key Stages

2 Course Objectives 2 Enhance teachers’ understanding of the challenges facing S1 and S4 students Provide suggestions on how to enhance the interface between the KS2 to KS3 and KS3 to SS in English Language Education Discuss ways to facilitate curriculum continuity and students’ development of learning strategies Share experience and good practices in planning and managing the English panel with a focus on integrating classroom and independent learning

3 Run-down 3 14:00 – 14:10Registration 14:10 – 15:50 Strategies to Enhance the Interface across Key Stages and Improve the Implementation of Whole-school Language Policy 15:50 – 16:10Break 16:10 – 16:50 Integrating Classroom and Independent Learning - Experience Sharing from Henrietta Secondary School 16:50 – 17:00Q & A

4 A survey about your school Different schools may be using English as the medium of instruction at varying degrees to cater for student diversity. Which of the following is implemented by your school? (A) adopting English as the MOI for all subjects (B) adopting different MOI by class/group (C) teaching two subjects using EMI (D) conducting English extended learning activities (E) none of the above 4

5 Some Findings from Evaluation Study on the Implementation of the English Language Curriculum at Secondary Level Junior secondary curriculum was considered more focused and manageable; Senior secondary curriculum too broad and challenging. A significant difference in students’ self-perceived language proficiency across levels - the higher the level of students, the lower their perceived language proficiency is. Students’ lack of self-learning ability was a major concern and should be attended to in the implementation of the curriculum reform 5

6 Concept of Interface A transition programme is NEITHER limited to a summer bridging programme NOR an induction programme A transition programme refers to one that covers the broad period of time from preparing students to move from primary schools until their successful settlement in secondary schools. 6

7 Four phases of transition Preparation Schools start preparing students for the senior secondary education and make appropriate alignments. Transfer Schools provide information for students regarding their senior secondary education. Bridging activities are conducted. Induction Orientation activities and programmes are conducted to familiarise students with their new learning experience. Reinforcement & Extension “Transition” measures are adopted to strengthen and extend students’ learning based on their prior learning. Measures are taken to prepare students for tertiary education. 7 Galton, M., Gray J & Ruddock J (1999), The Impact of School Transitions and Transfers on Pupil Progress and Attainment, pp.27-28, Norwich, Crown

8 Diagrammatic Representation of the Four Phases of Transition S1S2S3S4S5S6 Preparation Induction Reinforcement & Extension Transfer 8

9 Key considerations in enhancing Interface 9 -Understand students’ previous learning and future learning needs -Building on the strengths of students and considering their future learning needs, plan for a Junior Secondary English Language curriculum to gear students towards the learning targets and objectives in the English Language curriculum

10 Effective strategies to enhance the interface 1.Curriculum Continuity 2.Pedagogical Adjustment 3.Development of Learning Strategies 10 Junior Secondary Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts Extensive reading and viewing Further development of language skills and strategies Senior Secondary Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types Elective modules (Language Arts & Non- Language Arts) Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts Primary Exposure to a range of text types Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language Curriculum Development of basic language skills and strategies Learning Experience across key stages

11 T Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 2 Additional Examples of Text Types for Key Stage 3 Additional Examples of Text Types for SS Plays Announcements Informational reports Maps and legends News / Weather reports Pamphlets E-mails Formal letters Discussions Telephone conversations Procedures Recipes Book reviews/reports Film reviews Itineraries Manuals Newspaper articles Short novels Short stories Interviews Presentations Editorials Debates Documentaries Essays Feature articles Films Novels Minutes Public speeches Proposals Resumes 11 Text types Across Different Key stages Longer text More Complex information More information More demanding in skills

12 Effective strategies to enhance the interface 1.Curriculum Continuity 2.Pedagogical Adjustment 3.Development of Learning Strategies 12 Junior Secondary Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts Extensive reading and viewing Further development of language skills and strategies Senior Secondary Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types Elective modules (Language Arts & Non- Language Arts) Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts Primary Exposure to a range of text types Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language Curriculum Development of basic language skills and strategies Learning Experience across key stages

13 13 Components of a Primary School-based English Language Curriculum 13 Curriculum Continuity

14 Reading across the Curriculum: To promote reading as a means to help learners seek information, develop thinking skills, enrich knowledge, enhance language proficiency and broaden perspectives To promote the development of functional reading skills to help learners relate English Language learning to daily life in real world To encourage extensive reading of a wide variety of resource materials with different subject content to enhance learning English Language Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4 - 6) 2007 Curriculum Continuity 14

15 Incorporating a reading programme into the School-based English Language Curriculum Suggestion on Strengthening Students’ Reading Skills at Junior Secondary Level GE Programme Reading Programme PRI JS Curriculum Continuity 15

16 Consideration in Planning for Reading Programme at Junior Secondary Level Related topic Linkage between texts Variety of text types Level of difficulty 16 Integrating reading into regular English Language lessons with the other language skills of listening, speaking and writing Curriculum Continuity 16

17 Topic: Earth Writing an argumentative essay on the use of alternative energy sources for generating electricity Grammar items and structures, skills development… Reading Skills & Strategies Info. about the Earth and environment protection Participle phrases, noun phrases Adjectives to describe the Earth Text structure of poem and essay Extended Reading: The Earth (An information book) Discover and Experience (A government pamphlet – Electrical & Mechanical Services Department) Reading across the Curriculum Textbook: The Beautiful Planet – poem and essay

18 Curriculum Continuity Integrating elements of the SS English Language curriculum into the General English Programme at the JS Level 18 Suggested Modules at JS Level Elective Modules at SS Level Teenage Life Nature and Environment Getting Along with Others Study, School and Work Rights and Responsibilities Wonderful Things Cultures of the World Poems & Songs Drama Short Stories Popular Culture Debating Social Issues Sports Communication Workplace Communication

19 Effective strategies to enhance the interface 1.Curriculum Continuity 2.Pedagogical Adjustment 3.Development of Learning Strategies 19 Junior Secondary Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts Extensive reading and viewing Further development of language skills and strategies Senior Secondary Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types Elective modules (Language Arts & Non- Language Arts) Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts Primary Exposure to a range of text types Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language Curriculum Development of basic language skills and strategies Learning Experiences across key stages

20 Understanding the Progressive Development of the Four Language Skills across Key Stages 20 Curriculum Continuity

21 Development of Listening Skills KS2 -Identify and discriminate sounds, stress and intonation -Listen for explicit and implicit meaning, e.g. KS3 Curriculum continuity across key stages Identify consonant blends and long vowel sounds Predict the likely development of a topic by recognising key words, using personal experiences, and making use of context and knowledge of the world Locate specific information in spoken texts Listen for intended meanings, feelings and attitudes, e.g. Understand the connection between ideas supported by cohesive devices Identify the gist and main ideas by recognising the stress in connected speech Identify key ideas in a passage, discussion or conversation Discriminate between different intonation for various feelings and attitudes Identify the sequence of events, causes and effects Extract information and ideas in spoken texts Understand levels of formality and informality Make connections between ideas and information with the help of discourse markers

22 22 Development of Speaking Skills KS2 -Present information, ideas and feelings clearly and coherently -Participate effectively in an oral interaction, e.g. KS3 Apply grammar rules such as subject-verb agreement correctly Asking and responding to others’ opinions Use appropriate intonation and stress, and vary volume, tone of voice and speed to convey intended meanings and feelings Use gestures and facial expressions to convey meaning and intention Connect ideas by using cohesive devices, e.g. also, at last, before Describe the sequence of events, causes and effects Express, elicit and respond to ideas, opinions and feelings in a group discussion Use correct pronunciation, intonation and register for different purposes Use words and expressions appropriate to the context Seek and give clarification, explain what information one requires and why, rephrase one’s question when necessary, sum up points made and redirect the discussion when the need arises -Present information, ideas and feelings clearly and coherently -Participate effectively in an oral interaction, e.g. Curriculum continuity across key stages

23 Development of Reading Skills KS2 Construct meaning from texts and locate information and ideas, e.g. KS3 Work out the meaning of unknown words by using word association, visual clues, context & knowledge of the world Understand intention, attitudes and feelings conveyed in a text Recognise the features of a variety of text types Understand, interpret and analyse different written texts, e.g. Skim and scan a text to obtain the main ideas and locate specific information Re-read the text to establish and confirm meaning Recognise recurrent patterns in language structure Make use of knowledge of the world to make sense of the written text Acquire, extract and organise information relevant to specific tasks Understand different feelings, views and attitudes Identify implied meanings through inferencing Understand the use of discourse markers Understand how sentences and parts of a sentence relate to each other Curriculum continuity across key stages

24 Development of Writing Skills KS2 -Use the basic conventions of written English -Present information, ideas and feelings clearly and coherently, e.g. KS3 Use cursive script, capitalisation and conventional punctuation Use appropriate formats, conventions and language features when writing a variety of text types, e.g. journals, emails, procedures Use a small range of language patterns such as different verb forms and structural patterns Present information, ideas and feelings clearly and coherently, e.g. Write paragraphs which develop main ideas Plan and organise information, and express own ideas and feelings by, e.g. deciding on the sequence of content Describe, express or explain ideas, feelings and experiences Use tone, style and register for various purposes Use a wide range of language patterns for various purposes Plan and organise ideas, and use appropriate cohesive devices Evaluate and make use of given information to complete specific tasks Use strategies to arouse and sustain readers’ interest Curriculum continuity across key stages

25 Use of assessment data to plan / adjust the school-based curriculum: Pre-S1 Hong Kong Attainment Test Territory-wide System Assessment (TSA) Internal School Assessments Pre-S1 Hong Kong Attainment Test JS English Language curriculum S3 TSA 25 Curriculum Continuity

26 Use of assessment data to plan the school-based curriculum: Students’ Areas for Improvement: Use appropriate formats, conventions and language features Use tone, style and register for various purposes Possible Adjustment to the Curriculum: Enrich students’ skills and knowledge Incorporate tasks that address students’ needs 26

27 Effective strategies to enhance the interface 1.Curriculum Continuity 2.Pedagogical Adjustment 3.Development of Learning Strategies 27 Junior Secondary Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts Extensive reading and viewing Further development of language skills and strategies Senior Secondary Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types Elective modules (Language Arts & Non- Language Arts) Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts Primary Exposure to a range of text types Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language Curriculum Development of basic language skills and strategies Learning Experiences across key stages

28 Taking students’ prior learning into consideration Developing a shared understanding of effective learning and teaching Ensuring greater alignment of teaching practices— applying teaching strategies that draw on students’ previous learning and experience help students connect new learning and experience Pedagogical Adjustment 28

29 Identifying skills and terminology acquired in primary schools Adapting the S1 scheme of work to take into account topics and language items already covered Developing a “buddy system” to pair students who have acquired the target language items with those who have not Providing new and challenging materials when revising topics previously covered Adopting an inductive approach to help students consolidate and extend knowledge Strategies to Build on Students’ Prior Learning, Knowledge and Experience Pedagogical Adjustment 29

30 To enhance the progression of reading skills from KS2 to KS3, we can … model the use of reading strategies through thinking aloud and provide opportunities for learners to apply them during independent reading use a range of guiding questions for scaffolding / prompting to facilitate meaning making and extend content learning vary the amount of teacher support to cater for learner diversity 30 Develop a shared understanding of effective learning & teaching Pedagogical Adjustment 30

31 Communicative Functions across Key Stages The Communicative Functions listed for Key Stages 1 & 2 should be consolidated and extended to a greater degree of complexity at Key Stage 3. The Communicative Functions listed for Key Stages 1-3 should be consolidated and extended to a greater degree of complexity at Senior Secondary level. The LEARNING and teaching of grammar 31 Source: CDC Syllabus for English Language (Secondary 1-5) (1999), p.18. 31 Pedagogical Adjustment

32 Do you think you would use the following materials in your transition programme? Are they able to help consolidate and extend students learning? Why/why not? Introduce oneself on a personal homepage. 32 A reading passage A grammar exercise Activity 2 Hi, I am Andy. I am a 13-year- old boy. I live in Yuen Long. I go to school by bus. I usually get up at 6:30 am. I finish school at around 4:00 pm. … Complete the following sentences using the simple present tense of the verbs given. 1.Mary _______ (go) to school by bus every day. 2.The students ______ (like) English lessons. 3.The sun ________ (go) down in the west.

33 Consolidation and Extension of Communicative Functions across Key Stages I’m Joe. I am six years old. I like apples. I’m Joe. I am six years old. I like apples. Introduce oneself to the class. e.g. Introduce oneself I am currently studying in a school that mainly adopts Chinese as the medium of instruction. My experience in the last four years has told me that it is more effective to learn non-language subjects in Chinese. Introduce oneself in a letter to the editor to express personal opinion Hi, I am Andy. I am a 13- year old boy who loves blogging. My friends call me Smarty because I like to make people laugh with clever jokes. Introduce oneself on a personal homepage. KS1SS 33 Pedagogical Adjustment

34 In groups 1.Study a student work sample – a magazine article about exciting places in Hong Kong. 2.Highlight the grammar items used by the student to make suggestions on improvement. Share your observation with your group members. 3.Discuss how to develop students’ grammar knowledge to enhance communication in the context of this task. Today I want to tell you some places to visit in Hong Kong. First, you can go to Kowloon. At Wong Tai Sin, there have a Wong Tai Sin Temple. You can go there for please god to bless you. Then, you can go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit avenue of stars, its funny! Because you can see many people is made in stone. After that, you can go to Sai Kung. At Sai Kung you can BBQ there with your friends. You also can go hiking and camping there! I think it will be exciting! Next, you can go to Mai Po Wetland. At Mai Po Wetland, there have many types of bird, you can see many birds at there! Finally, you can go to Lantau Island. At Tai O you can buy salty fish and, there have a beautiful view! It can let you do not want to go home, you also can ride on Ngong Ping 360 at Lantau Island! Activity 3

35 A Communicative Function Expressed by Multiple Grammar Items and Structures The student uses mainly the modal “can” to make suggestions, e.g. “…you can go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit the Avenue of Stars...” “…you can go to Sai Kung.” “…you can go to Lantau Island.” “At Tai O you can buy salty fish…” The problems caused by the frequent use of the modal “can” in this context monotony mismatch between the context and the language used Today I want to tell you some places to visit in Hong Kong. First, you can go to Kowloon. At Wong Tai Sin, there have a Wong Tai Sin Temple. You can go there for please god to bless you. Then, you can go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit avenue of stars, its funny! Because you can see many people is made in stone. After that, you can go to Sai Kung. At Sai Kung you can BBQ there with your friends. You also can go hiking and camping there! I think it will be exciting! Next, you can go to Mai Po Wetland. At Mai Po Wetland, there have many types of bird, you can see many birds at there! Finally, you can go to Lantau Island. At Tai O you can buy salty fish and, there have a beautiful view! It can let you do not want to go home, you also can ride on Ngong Ping 360 at Lantau Island! Pedagogical Adjustment

36 To address the problem of monotony, the student could use a greater range of appropriate grammar items and structures to make suggestions, e.g. “…why don’t you go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit the Avenue of Stars?” “What about going to Sai Kung?” “You must go to Mai Po Wetland.” “You had better make up your mind soon.” 36 There are three days of public holidays next weekend. Where will you go to in Hong Kong to enjoy yourself? There are many interesting places in Hong Kong. I have a few suggestions for you. First, if you want to see how people worship God, visiting Wong Tai Sin Temple, which is in Kowloon. Then why don’t you go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit Avenue of Stars? It’s fun! Because you can worship your favourite film stars there. If you like BBQ, what about going to Sai Kung? At Sai Kung, you can BBQ with your friends in some country parks. It’s also a good place for hiking and camping. I think it will be exciting! If you like widelife, you must go to Mai Po Wetland. There are many types of birds in Mai Po Wetland. If you like birds, this can be the place for you. Finally, you should also visit Lantau Island. At Tai O, buy some salted fish if you like special food… Don’t forget to take a ride on Ngong Ping 360 before you go home. Next weekend, you will even get two tickets for the price of one. You had better make up your mind soon! … Pedagogical Adjustment A Communicative Function Expressed by Multiple Grammar Items and Structures

37 The modal “will” is used to express the following communicative functions in the context of this article: to talk about intention to express certainty to talk about the future 37 There are three days of public holidays next weekend.Where will you go to in Hong Kong to enjoy yourself? There are many interesting places in Hong Kong. I have a few suggestions for you. First, if you want to see how people worship God, visiting Wong Tai Sin Temple,which is in Kowloon.Then why don’t you go to Tsim Sha Tsui to visit Avenue of Stars? It’s fun! Because you can worship your favourite film stars there. If you like BBQ, what about going to Sai Kung? At Sai Kung, you can BBQ with your friends in some country parks. It’s also a good place for hiking and camping. I think it will be exciting! If you like widelife, you must go to Mai Po Wetland. There are many types of birds in Mai Po Wetland. If you like birds, this can be the place for you. Finally, you should also visit Lantau Island. At Tai O, buy some salted fish if you like special food. There is also a very beautiful view. It is so beautiful that you will not want to go home! Don’t forget to take a ride on Ngong Ping 360 before you go home. Next weekend, you will even get two tickets for the price of one. You had better make up your mind soon! There is so much to do here in Hong Kong that you will never get bored! Multiple Communicative Functions Expressed by a Grammar Item and Structure Pedagogical Adjustment

38 Grammar as Resources The same communicative function can be expressed by different grammar items and structures: e.g. suggestions can be made by using: You must / have to… You had better / You’d better… You should… Why not… / Why don’t you…? The same grammar item and structure can be used to express different communicative functions: e.g. the modal “will” is used: to talk about intention to express certainty to talk about the future 38 Pedagogical Adjustment

39 Find out what our students read & what skills they need Before lessons begin Visual Arts 1 st recess English 2 nd recess Science Humanities Lunch break Mathematics (Adapted from Wray, D. (2006). Teaching literacy across the primary curriculum (p. viii-ix). Exeter : Learning Matters.) 39 Example To enhance the progression of reading skills from KS2 to KS3, we can … Pedagogical Adjustment PowerPoint developed for the Professional Development Programme on Reading across the Curriculum under the fine-tuned MOI arrangements

40 TimeReading engaged in “Reading for school subjects / everyday life?” Before lessons begin 1. Some pages from a comic (Japanese manga) with his friend Visual Arts lessons 2. Some pictures showing beautiful clay sculpture by famous artists on the projector screen 3. Instructions & notes on how to make a clay sculpture on the screen 1 st recess4. Some more pages from a comic (Japanese manga) with his friend English lessons5. Text on the screen and in the textbook 6. A list of “feeling” verbs and adjectives on the screen 7. Read aloud from his sentences to class 2 nd recess8. A class notice about a school trip which he had to take home to parents Integrated Science lessons 9. Science investigation instructions from the screen 10. The same instructions from his textbook as he carried out the investigation 11. Teacher’s account of the investigation on whiteboard 12. Read aloud some of his results for teacher to write 13. Some explanations on the screen Integrated humanities lesson 14. A passage on Hong Kong: Its history and its geography lunch break15. A library book for his book report Maths lessons16. Maths problem on the screen 17. His teacher’s answers 18. Maths problem from his workbook Reading for everyday life Reading for school subjects Example Find out what our students read & what skills they need To enhance the progression of reading skills from KS2 to KS3, we can … 40 (Adapted from Wray, D. (2006). Teaching literacy across the primary curriculum (p. viii-ix). Exeter : Learning Matters.) PowerPoint developed for the Professional Development Programme on Reading across the Curriculum under the fine-tuned MOI arrangements

41 Increasing language demands in the use of academic language JS History e.g. After 1871, relations among the European powers got worse. To be stronger than their rivals, they produced more armaments and built up large armies. Armaments were also a symbol of national strength. A strong navy could also protect a country’s overseas colonies and economic interests. (p.7 Travelling Through History 3A) SS History e.g. After 1871, as international tensions grew, the fear of becoming weaker than the others led the powers to strengthen their military and increase armaments. The armaments race resulted. In the early 20th century, the European powers were divided into rival camps… Also, a strong navy was needed to protect a country’s overseas colonies and economic interests, thus intensifying the armaments race. (p.12, HKDSE History Inquiry Vol. II) Ensure a Greater Alignment of Teaching Practices— draw on students’ previous learning and experience Pedagogical Adjustment 41

42 Listening SpeakingWriting Reading Language across the Curriculum –Explicit teaching of reading to be integrated with teaching the curriculum –Strengthening reading to learn: the subject matter of pedagogic texts the associated language patterns (Martin & Rose, 2005) Academic content Awareness + Academic language awareness Raise awareness of language demands involved in reading texts Strengthen Language across the Curriculum Develop a shared understanding of effective learning & teaching To enhance the progression of reading skills from KS2 to KS3, we can … Pedagogical Adjustment 42

43 Academic English – grammatically complex and lexically dense  More embedding / subordinate clauses The Earth's orbit around the Sun is an ellipse lying in the ecliptic plane, which means that it is not a perfect circle.  Longer prepositional phrases All through the year the climate of Singapore is hot and humid with minimum average temperatures of 23 °C and maximum of 31 °C.  More attributive adjectives and nominalisation Because of its high tensile strength, …  More passive structures …, steel is produced in the form of wire, tube, bar and sheet and used to manufacture domestic appliances, agricultural and industrial products.  More academic words than grammatical words e.g. relative humidity, orbit, tensile strength 43 Raise awareness of the language demands in reading and writing texts of content subjects Pedagogical Adjustment

44 Highlighting information structure of different text types and the relevant reading strategies Use of graphic organisers to provide visual representation of the texts Adapting appropriate instructional strategies to facilitate comprehension Text level: genres/text types (information structuring) Ideas level: graphic organizers, diagrams, tables, pictures Sentence level: grammar Word level: vocabulary 44 Pedagogical Adjustment Develop a shared understanding of effective learning & teaching Raise awareness of the language demands in reading and writing texts of content subjects

45 45 Text types How information is structured NarrativeOrientation  Complication  Resolution  Coda Information report General statements  Description ExplanationIdentifying statements  Sequence of explanation DiscussionIssue  Arguments for / Arguments against ProcedureGoal (optional)  Materials (optional)  Steps RecountOrientation  Record of events  Reorientation (optional)  Coda ExpositionStatement of position  Preview of arguments (Optional)  Argument 1  Argument 2 (Optional)  Reinforcement of statement position Highlight information structures of different text types and the relevant reading and writing strategies Facilitating comprehension at text level Pedagogical Adjustment (Adapted from Butt, D. Fahey, R. Feez, S. Spinks, S and Yallop, C. (2002). Using functional grammar, p. 13National centre for English Language Teaching and Research.) PowerPoint developed for the Professional Development Programme on Reading across the Curriculum under the fine-tuned MOI arrangements

46 Making effective use of graphic organisers Graphic organisers help students understand and present how ideas or concepts relate to one another through the development of a well-structured mental picture about the content. (Goldman & Rakestraw, 2000) Graphic organisers for different language functions: Venn Chart for Comparison and Contrast Flow Chart for Sequence T-chart for the pros and cons of an issue 46 Facilitating reading and writing at idea level Pedagogical Adjustment

47 Q: What are the types of food substances that we need for sustaining life? Now write down the main ideas in the table. What are the types of food substance's that we need for sustaining life? Food substances Different food contains different types of food substances. These food substances can be classified into primary food substances, which are essential to life, and protective food substances, which are important for keeping our body healthy. The food substances can be divided into seven types: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. The first four are primary food substances and the remaining three are protective food substances. 47 Unpacking information using graphic organiser s to facilitate reading An example of classroom activity Pedagogical Adjustment

48 Q: What are the types of food substances that we need for sustaining life? Food substances Different food contains different types of food substances. These food substances can be classified into primary food substances, which are essential to life, and protective food substances, which are important for keeping our body healthy. The food substances can be divided into seven types: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. The first four are primary food substances and the remaining three are protective food substances. Food Substances Primary Food Substances (essential to life) Protective Food Substances (keeping our body healthy Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre 48 Matching diagrams with text structure Unpacking information using graphic organiser to facilitate reading Pedagogical Adjustment

49 49 Food Substances Essential to life Primary Food Substances Protective Food Substances Keeping our body healthy can be classified (passive voice) which are (relative clause) Food substances can be classified into primary food substances and protective food substances, which are essential to life and keeping our body healthy. Repacking information using graphic organisers to facilitate writing Pedagogical Adjustment

50 Explicitly modelling repacking Food substances can be classified into primary food substances and protective food substances, which are essential to life and keeping our body healthy. SVO Embedded clause Food substances can be classified into primary food substances and protective food substances. which are essential to life and keeping our body healthy. can be categorised into can be divided into Repacking information using graphic organiser to facilitate writing Pedagogical Adjustment Primary Food Substances essential to life Food Substances Protective Food Substances keeping our body healthy

51 Unpacking complex sentence structure Demonstrate identifying key parts of sentences and clauses, separating the crucial, main ideas from extra information The key parts of the sentence often include (1) main participant, (2) main process, and (3) main receiver. “What is doing what to what?” Guide students to underline, circle, colour-code the information E.g. Urbanization is lowering the quality of life. (Adopted from Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms, grades 5-12, pp. 182-187. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.) Facilitating comprehension at sentence level Pedagogical Adjustment 51

52 Classroom activities that help students recognise organisation at the sentence, paragraph and text levels Examples of classroom activities Where does the missing paragraph belong? What’s the most appropriate opening/closing paragraph? Find the odd-one-out. Create graphic organisers. Match paragraphs to their topic sentences. / Underline topic sentences. Circle organisation markers, such as headings, sub-headings, and linking devices. Summarise the text. Text reconstruction (cut-up sentences) Cloze activities – (useful for raising awareness of connectives) Pedagogical Adjustment 52 PowerPoint developed for the Professional Development Programme on Reading across the Curriculum under the fine-tuned MOI arrangements

53 Use concept map or multiple-meaning map to strengthen cognitive processing of word meanings Strengthen word attack skills Highlight methods of word formation & generative rules. Affixation: underdeveloped; Compounding: counter-proposal Teach derivatives and word parts e.g. roots and affixes (e.g. underdeveloped, unemployment) Guide the use of structural & lexical clues e.g. “The sploony urdle departed after the enemy’s attack… “ Q: What part of speech is ‘sploony’? Q: How do you know? Replace ‘sploony’ with a real word. Q: Who was the enemy? How did it attack? Q: How did sploony urdle move? Was sploony urdle a living creature or a vehicle? Facilitating comprehension at word level Source: Nuttall (2005). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language p. 69. Pedagogical Adjustment 53

54 Effective strategies to enhance the interface 1.Curriculum Continuity 2.Pedagogical Adjustment 3.Development of Learning Strategies 54 Junior Secondary Exposure to a wide range of print and non-print texts Extensive reading and viewing Further development of language skills and strategies Senior Secondary Exposure to a widened range of more complex text types Elective modules (Language Arts & Non- Language Arts) Comprehension and production of more complex messages in more formal texts Primary Exposure to a range of text types Incorporation of Reading Workshops into the School-based English Language Curriculum Development of basic language skills and strategies Learning Experience across key stages

55  Developing students’ metacognitive strategies  Providing opportunities for students to take charge of their own learning  Prepare students for the next Learning Stage and learning content subjects 55 Development of Learning Strategies

56 Dimensions of metacognition Knowledge of Cognition - knowledge about ourselves as learners and what influences our performance - knowledge about learning strategies - knowledge about when and why to use a strategy Regulation of Cognition - planning: setting goals and activating relevant background knowledge - regulation: monitoring and self-testing - evaluation: appraising the products and regulatory processes of learning Development of Learning Strategies 56 Adapted from Brown (1987). Metacognition, Executive Control, Self-Regulation, and Other More Mysterious Mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

57 Source: Pakenham (2004), Making Connections Intermediate, Cambridge University Press, p.137-138. -Guide students to try out an effective strategy and highlight its application value Teacher: Circle the phrases / words that help you figure out the meaning of “host country”. Write down the meaning of the “host country”. Teacher: Yes, the meaning is right. Did you all use the same contextual cues? There can be different contextual cues, some closer to the unfamiliar vocabulary, others farther. Different contextual cues help to confirm your understanding of “host country”. Explicit Teaching of Metacognitive Strategies A Reading Text on Global Migration Sample classroom discourse: What is the meaning of “host country”? Development of Learning Strategies 57

58 -Guide students to try out an effective strategy and highlight its application value Teacher: Circle a sentence which tells you the main idea of Paragraph 6. Find and number the details that support it. Teacher: Great. The topic sentence helps you locate the positive effects quickly. This is a very useful strategy. 58 Explicit Teaching of Metacognitive Strategies Topic sentence: “This impact can be positive. …” Sample classroom discourse: A Reading Text on Global Migration What are the positive effects of immigration on the countries involved? Development of Learning Strategies

59 - Make the processes and strategies of comprehension visible to students Comprehension ProcessExample of what teachers can say Identifying confusing parts and clarifying I didn’t catch whether … I need to check back to see. Figuring out long sentences and breaking them down into chucks This basically means that … Making predictions and inferences; seeing if they are answered or confirmed Because of the subheading, I predict that the next section will be about … Connecting text to own life, other texts or knowledge of the world. This reminds me of … I have a picture in my mind of … Source :Zwiers (2008): Building Academic Language, Jossey-bass Teacher, p.170) Explicit Teaching of Metacognitive Strategies Development of Learning Strategies 59

60 Help students evaluate their strategies of learning English Development of Learning Strategies 60 The focus shifts from: “How do you spell the word ‘potassium’?”  “How do you remember the spelling of ‘potassium’?” Possible answers: 1.Break the word into syllables “po-tas-si-um” 2.Link it to similar words “potassium” – “sodium”, “aluminium” 3.Mnemonic: potassium “One tea two sugars” Source: http://www.learninginfo.org/spelling-mnemonics.htm

61 61 Other ways to spell difficult words : finding out the affixes (un-comfortable; pre-dict-able) finding a word within a word (currant) thinking of words of the same word family (chemistry, chemical) using a spelling rule (double the consonant after a short vowel, e.g. hitting) Development of Learning Strategies Learning centres on:  the learning process  the choice of appropriate strategies Help students evaluate their strategies of learning English

62  Stressing the role of teachers in implementing independent learning:  Decide on the appropriate degree and form of support across levels  Strategically prepare students to plan their study and assess themselves To focus on more specific areas To allow deeper reflection 62 Development of Learning Strategies Providing opportunities for students to take charge of their own learning

63 63 More focussed assessment of performance covering 3 areas (Content, Organisation & Language)  1 area (Organisation) Post-discussion with teacher to seek expert advice for improvement More effective self assessment Development of Learning Strategies

64  Creating an English learning environment that is conducive to independent learning Easy Access of Information Setting up resource area in classroom Stimulating exchange & discussions through online conferencing / other means Appropriate use of e-learning resources Create success: Displaying students’ works Arranging students to present their works Recognising independent learning 64 Providing opportunities for students to take charge of their own learning Development of Learning Strategies

65 Reference Brown (1987). Metacognition, Executive Control, Self-Regulation, and Other More Mysterious Mechanisms. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65-116). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Butt D., Fahey R., Feez S., Spinks S. & Yallop C. (2002). Using functional grammar, p. 13National centre for English Language Teaching and Research Cheng, K.L., Fung S. K. (2011). Travelling through History 3A, p.7, Hong Kong: Aristo Educational Press Ltd. Cheng, K.L., Fung S.K., Kan Y. Y., Lau M.S., (2009). HKDSE History Inquiry Vol. II, p.12, Hong Kong: Aristo Educational Press Ltd. Cockayne, G (2010). Learning Academic English, pp1-2. From http://www.geoffcockayne.org.ukhttp://www.geoffcockayne.org.uk Galton, M., Gray J & Ruddock J (1999). The Impact of School Transitions and Transfers on Pupil Progress and Attainment, pp.27-28, Norwich, Crown Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text, Handbook of reading research, (Vol. II, pp. 311-335), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 65

66 Reference Hasan, R., Matthiessen C.M.I.M. & Webster J (2005). Designing literacy pedagogy: scaffolding asymmetries. Continuing Discourse on Language. pp.251-280, London: Equinox. Nuttall, C (2005). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, p. 69, Oxford : Heinemann Pakenham K.J. (2004). Making Connections Intermediate, Cambridge University Press, p.137-138. Pasquarelli S. L. (2006). Teaching Writing Genres Across the Curriculum Strategies for middle school teachers (Greenwich, Conn.) Rose, D. (2010). Reading to learn: Teacher resource books, book 1, p. 8. From http://www.readingtolearn.com.auhttp://www.readingtolearn.com.au Wray D. (2006). Teaching literacy across the primary curriculum (p. viii-ix). Exeter : Learning Matters. Whitaker, S. (2008). Building vocabulary across texts and disciplines. Portsmouth, pp. 149 & 156, NH: Heinemann Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms, grades 5-12, pp. 164-187, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mnemonics: What are Spelling Mnemonics From http://www.learninginfo.org/spelling-mnemonics.htm 66


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