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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 GENE EXPRESSION IN EUKARYOTES (cont.) MISS NUR SHALENA SOFIAN."— Presentation transcript:


2 What happen in post-transcriptional event of eukaryotes?? Eukaryotic genes are mostly interrupted by nonsense DNA - introns RNA polymerase is unable to distinguish those genes so it transcribes everything Splicing of the nonsense genes occur In addition, the 5’- and 3’- end of mRNA is tack with a cap and string of AMPs called poly(A) These events occur in nucleus before the mRNA migrates to cytoplasm for translation

3 “ This is bhgty the human β-globin qhdtchao gene” Intervening sequences or introns are unrelated regions on genes coding for mRNA, tRNA and a few for rRNA Other parts of the gene, exons, are coding sequences that appear in the final mRNA product mRNA may contain 0 -60 introns

4 Eukaryotic promoter sequences are more variable and often more complex than those of bacteria For structural genes, at least three features are found in most promoters Transcriptional start site TATA box Regulatory elements Promoters of Eukaryotic Genes

5 Usually an adenine The core promoter is relatively short – It consists of the TATA box Important in determining the precise start point for transcription The core promoter by itself produces a low level of transcription – This is termed basal transcription

6 Regulatory elements affect the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter – They are of two types Enhancers – Stimulate transcription Silencers – Inhibit transcription – They vary in their locations but are often found in the – 50 to –100 region (e.g. GC and CAAT boxes) Usually an adenine

7 How do the introns get spliced off?

8 RNA splicing – the process of cutting introns out of immature RNAs and stitching together exons to form mature RNAs Spliceosome responsible in splicing pre-mRNA in eukaryotes – consists of snRNPs

9 Mechanisms of splicing introns U1 binds to 5’ splice site; U2 at branch site Trimer of three snRNPs: U4/U6 and U5 bind at the intron region thus forming loop As the 5’ splice site is cut, its end is attached to adenosine nucleotide at branch site 2 exons are bring together; U1 and U4 are released 3’ splice site is cut; 2 exons are finally connected to each other U2, U5, U6 remain attached to the introns (lariat form) Intron is degraded; snRNPs are reused

10 Why need to have introns in genes??? Alternative splicing – having multiple introns can give variations in splicing, resulting in mRNA that contains alternative combinations of exons Occur in different cell types e.g. muscle cells having exons 1-2-4-5-6-7; nerve cells having exons 1-2-3-5-6-7 Two or more different proteins can derived from the same single gene

11 Pre-mRNA having 5’-cap and 3’-tail Mature mRNA has 5’-cap of 7- methylguanosine RNA 5’-triphosphatase removes one of the phosphate groups at 5’-end Guanylyltransferase attach GMP from GTP Methyltrasnferase attaches methyl group to guanine base

12 Removes one of the phosphates Attaches GMP to the 5’ end

13 Attaches a methyl group to the guanine base

14 Why need capping??? Require for exiting of mature mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm Cap structure can be recognized by initiation factors that are needed during early stages of translation Efficient splicing of introns especially for those that are nearest to 5’-end

15 3’- poly(A) tail Needed for: - mRNA stability - synthesis of polypeptides Poly(A) tail is not encoded during transcription; added by polyA polymerase enzyme at 3’-end of the pre-mRNA Consensus sequence is AAUAAA downstream from stop codon Endonuclease cuts ~20 nt beyond the AAUAAA sequence PolymeraseA adds many adenine-containing nucleotides

16 Appears to be important in the stability of mRNA and the translation of the polypeptide Length varies between species

17 Note: Eucaryotes

18 Reverse Transcription via reverse transcriptase

19 Reverse transcriptase use RNA as template to make cDNA The enzyme encodes in retroviruses: RNA to DNA when it integrates into host’s cell Otherwise, can use mRNA as template to clone genes RNA is mixed with primers of polt-dT in a form of oligonucleotide Poly-dT primers complement to the polyA tail of mRNA Inclusion of reverse transcriptase and dNTPs to make DNA strand complement to mRNA

20 To make other strand of DNA, RnaseH partially degrade the RNA generating short RNA The short RNAs are used as primers by DNA polymerase to make second DNA strand DNA ligase seals any nicks in the second DNA strans Why cDNA is useful??? Lacks of introns Simpler to insert cDNAs directly into vectors to code a sequence of interest


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