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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions in C Outline 1Introduction 2Program Modules in C 3Math Library Functions 4Functions 5Function Definitions 6Function Prototypes 7Header Files 8Calling Functions: Call by Value and Call by Reference 9Random Number Generation 10Example: A Game of Chance 11Storage Classes 12Scope Rules 13Recursion 14Example Using Recursion: The Fibonacci Series 15Recursion vs. Iteration

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1Introduction Divide and conquer –Construct a program from smaller pieces or components –Each piece more manageable than the original program

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 2Program Modules in C Functions –Modules in C –Programs written by combining user-defined functions with library functions C standard library has a wide variety of functions Makes programmer's job easier - avoid reinventing the wheel

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 2Program Modules in C (II) Function calls –Invoking functions Provide function name and arguments (data) Function performs operations or manipulations Function returns results –Boss asks worker to complete task Worker gets information, does task, returns result Information hiding: boss does not know details

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 3Math Library Functions Math library functions –perform common mathematical calculations –#include Format for calling functions FunctionName (argument); If multiple arguments, use comma-separated list –printf( "%.2f", sqrt( 900.0 ) ); Calls function sqrt, which returns the square root of its argument All math functions return data type double –Arguments may be constants, variables, or expressions

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Math Library Functions double acos(double x) -- Compute arc cosine of x. double asin(double x) -- Compute arc sine of x. double atan(double x) -- Compute arc tangent of x. double atan2(double y, double x) -- Compute arc tangent of y/x. double ceil(double x) -- Get smallest integral value that exceeds x. double cos(double x) -- Compute cosine of angle in radians. double cosh(double x) -- Compute the hyperbolic cosine of x. div_t div(int number, int denom) -- Divide one integer by another. double exp(double x -- Compute exponential of x double fabs (double x ) -- Compute absolute value of x. double floor(double x) -- Get largest integral value less than x. double fmod(double x, double y) -- Divide x by y with integral quotient and return remainder. double frexp(double x, int *expptr) -- Breaks down x into mantissa and exponent of no. labs(long n) -- Find absolute value of long integer n. double ldexp(double x, int exp) -- Reconstructs x out of mantissa and exponent of two. ldiv_t ldiv(long number, long denom) -- Divide one long integer by another. double log(double x) -- Compute log(x). double log10 (double x ) -- Compute log to the base 10 of x. double modf(double x, double *intptr) -- Breaks x into fractional and integer parts. double pow (double x, double y) -- Compute x raised to the power y. double sin(double x) -- Compute sine of angle in radians. double sinh(double x) - Compute the hyperbolic sine of x. double sqrt(double x) -- Compute the square root of x. void srand(unsigned seed) -- Set a new seed for the random number generator (rand). double tan(double x) -- Compute tangent of angle in radians. double tanh(double x) -- Compute the hyperbolic tangent of x. http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/C/node17.html#SECTION001710000000000000000

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 4Functions Functions –Modularize a program –All variables declared inside functions are local variables Known only in function defined –Parameters Communicate information between functions Local variables Benefits –Divide and conquer Manageable program development –Software reusability Use existing functions as building blocks for new programs Abstraction - hide internal details (library functions) –Avoids code repetition

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 5Function Definitions Function definition format return-value-type function-name ( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } –Function-name: any valid identifier –Return-value-type: data type of the result (default int ) void - function returns nothing –Parameter-list: comma separated list, declares parameters (default int )

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 5Function Definitions (II) Function definition format (continued) return-value-type function-name ( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } –Declarations and statements: function body (block) Variables can be declared inside blocks (can be nested) Function can not be defined inside another function –Returning control If nothing returned –return; –or, until reaches right brace If something returned –return expression ;

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Function prototype (3 parameters) 2. Input values 2.1 Call function 3. Function definition Program Output 1/* 2 Finding the maximum of three integers */ 3#include 4 5int maximum( int, int, int ); /* function prototype */ 6 7int main() 8{8{ 9 int a, b, c; 10 11 printf( "Enter three integers: " ); 12 scanf( "%d%d%d", &a, &b, &c ); 13 printf( "Maximum is: %d\n", maximum( a, b, c ) ); 14 15 return 0; 16} 17 18/* Function maximum definition */ 19int maximum( int x, int y, int z ) 20{ 21 int max = x; 22 23 if ( y > max ) 24 max = y; 25 26 if ( z > max ) 27 max = z; 28 29 return max; 30} Enter three integers: 22 85 17 Maximum is: 85

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 6Function Prototypes Function prototype –Function name –Parameters - what the function takes in –Return type - data type function returns (default int ) –Used to validate functions –Prototype only needed if function definition comes after use in program int maximum( int, int, int ); Takes in 3 int s Returns an int Promotion rules and conversions –Converting to lower types can lead to errors

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 7Header Files Header files –contain function prototypes for library functions –,, etc –Load with #include #include Custom header files –Create file with functions –Save as filename.h –Load in other files with #include "filename.h" –Reuse functions

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8Calling Functions: Call by Value and Call by Reference Used when invoking functions Call by value –Copy of argument passed to function –Changes in function do not effect original –Use when function does not need to modify argument Avoids accidental changes Call by reference –Passes original argument –Changes in function effect original –Only used with trusted functions For now, we focus on call by value

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 9Random Number Generation rand function –Load –Returns "random" number between 0 and RAND_MAX (at least 32767) i = rand(); –Pseudorandom Preset sequence of "random" numbers Same sequence for every function call Scaling –To get a random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % n ) rand % n returns a number between 0 and n-1 Add 1 to make random number between 1 and n 1 + ( rand() % 6) // number between 1 and 6

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 9Random Number Generation (II) srand function – –Takes an integer seed - jumps to location in "random" sequence srand( seed ); –srand( time( NULL ) ); //load time( NULL )- time program was compiled in seconds "randomizes" the seed

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. Initialize seed 2. Input value for seed 2.1 Use srand to change random sequence 2.2 Define Loop 3. Generate and output random numbers 1/* 2 Randomizing die-rolling program */ 3#include 4#include 5 6int main() 7{7{ 8 int i; 9 unsigned seed; 10 11 printf( "Enter seed: " ); 12 scanf( "%u", &seed ); 13 srand( seed ); 14 15 for ( i = 1; i <= 10; i++ ) { 16 printf( "%10d", 1 + ( rand() % 6 ) ); 17 18 if ( i % 5 == 0 ) 19 printf( "\n" ); 20 } 21 22 return 0; 23}

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Program Output Enter seed: 867 2 4 6 1 6 1 1 3 6 2 Enter seed: 67 6 1 4 6 2 1 6 1 6 4 Enter seed: 67 6 1 4 6 2 1 6 1 6 4

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 10Example: A Game of Chance Craps simulator Rules –Roll two dice 7 or 11 on first throw, player wins 2, 3, or 12 on first throw, player loses 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 - value becomes player's "point" –Player must roll his point before rolling 7 to win

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 1. rollDice prototype 1.1 Initialize variables 1.2 Seed srand 2. Define switch statement for win/loss/continue 2.1 Loop 1/* 2 Craps */ 3#include 4#include 5#include 6 7int rollDice( void ); 8 9int main() 10{ 11 int gameStatus, sum, myPoint; 12 13 srand( time( NULL ) ); 14 sum = rollDice(); /* first roll of the dice */ 15 16 switch ( sum ) { 17 case 7: case 11: /* win on first roll */ 18 gameStatus = 1; 19 break; 20 case 2: case 3: case 12: /* lose on first roll */ 21 gameStatus = 2; 22 break; 23 default: /* remember point */ 24 gameStatus = 0; 25 myPoint = sum; 26 printf( "Point is %d\n", myPoint ); 27 break; 28 } 29 30 while ( gameStatus == 0 ) { /* keep rolling */ 31 sum = rollDice(); 32

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline 2.2 Print win/loss Program Output 33 if ( sum == myPoint ) /* win by making point */ 34 gameStatus = 1; 35 else 36 if ( sum == 7 ) /* lose by rolling 7 */ 37 gameStatus = 2; 38 } 39 40 if ( gameStatus == 1 ) 41 printf( "Player wins\n" ); 42 else 43 printf( "Player loses\n" ); 44 45 return 0; 46} 47 48int rollDice( void ) 49{ 50 int die1, die2, workSum; 51 52 die1 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); 53 die2 = 1 + ( rand() % 6 ); 54 workSum = die1 + die2; 55 printf( "Player rolled %d + %d = %d\n", die1, die2, workSum ); 56 return workSum; 57} Player rolled 6 + 5 = 11 Player wins

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2000 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Outline Program Output Player rolled 6 + 6 = 12 Player loses Player rolled 4 + 6 = 10 Point is 10 Player rolled 2 + 4 = 6 Player rolled 6 + 5 = 11 Player rolled 3 + 3 = 6 Player rolled 6 + 4 = 10 Player wins Player rolled 1 + 3 = 4 Point is 4 Player rolled 1 + 4 = 5 Player rolled 5 + 4 = 9 Player rolled 4 + 6 = 10 Player rolled 6 + 3 = 9 Player rolled 1 + 2 = 3 Player rolled 5 + 2 = 7 Player loses

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