2 LIMBIC SYSTEM Limbic:border Refers to a ring of gray matter on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres.Network of structures is associated with emotions, basic survival and sociosexual behavioral patterns, motivation, and learning.
4 Motivation is the ability to direct behavior toward specific goals. Homeostatic drivessensation of thirst,hunger.
5 Components Amygdaloid body Hippocampus (“seahorse”) Cingulate gyus Parahippocampal gyrusHypothalamusMamillary bodiesAnterior nucleus of thalamusMedial forebrain bundle
6 Hypothalamus: Major part Vegetative roles Behavioral control governs the involuntary internal responses of various body systems in preparation for appropriate action to accompany a particular emotional state. For example, the diversion of blood to skeletal muscles that occur in anticipation of attack or when angered.Preparatory changes in the internal state require no conscious control.
7 Concept of reward and punishment center Electrical self-stimulation and rewardStimulation in the lateral hypothalamusStimulation in the ventromedial nucleusConcept of reward or punishment center.
8 Anterior nucleus of thalamus Connections:Mammillothalamic tract,cingulate gyrus and hypothalamusFunctions:Emotional tone i-e attitude,mechanism of recent memory.
9 Mamillary bodiesRelay for impulses from amygdalae and hippocampi, via the mamillo-thalamic tract to the thalamus.Mammillotegmental tract: terminates in reticular formation of mid brain.They, along with the anterior and dorsomedial nuclei in the thalamus, are involved with the processing of memory.They are believed to add the element of smell to memories.Lesion:anterograde amnesia.
11 Dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus Prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus,other thalamic nuclei.Integration of somatic,visceral,olfactory information and relation to subjective feelings and emotional states.
12 Hippocampus Hyperexcitable:Prolonged discharges with slight stimulus 3 layered structureInvolved in sensationsAlmost any type of sensory experience causes activation of at least some part of the hippocampus.Seizures and hallucinations:focal epileptic seizures with psychomotor effects.
13 Roles Lesion Learning(bilateral lesion,cant learn even names) Memory(working memory,consolidation of memory, declarative memory functions)Evolutionary role (smell things to eat)Decision making for life and deathIt helps control corticosteroid production.It also has significant contribution to understanding spatial relations within the environment.LesionAnterograde amnesia.Lobes are removed for treatement of epilepsy.
14 Regions of the Amygdala Large basolateral region:Provides direct input to basal ganglia and motor system.Small corticomedial group of nuclei:Related to olfactory cortex especially in lower animals.
16 Amygdala stimulation produces emotional behaviors through subcortical pathways
17 Functions of the Amygdala behavioral awareness areasproject into the limbic system one’s current status in relation to both surroundings and thoughts.make the person behavioral response appropriate for each occasionRelate environmental stimuli to coordinated behavioral autonomic and endocrine responses seen in species-preservation.Responses include:Feeding and drinkingfighting behaviorMating and maternal careResponses to physical or emotional stresses
18 Limbic cortex Cerebral association area for control of behavior. Two-way communication and association linkage between the neocortex and the lower limbic structures.most poorly understood portion.Essentially all behavioral patterns can be elicited by stimulation of speciﬁc portions of the limbic cortex.Ablation of some limbic cortical areas can cause persistent changes in an animal’s behavior.
19 Ablation of the Posterior Orbital Frontal Cortex Insomnia associated with intense motor restlessness.Function: The orbital frontal lobes act as the Senior Executive of the social-emotional brain and exert tremendous inhibitory as well as expressive influences on emotion and generalized arousal through its massive interconnections with various limbic nuclie, the dorsal medial nucleus of the thalamus and the reticular formation.When the orbital area is injured all aspects of emotional and inhibitory behaviors may be compromised, and patients may display disinhibition, manic-excitement, and internal utilization behaviors (increased sexuality, orality).With complete destruction of the orbital area, emotional and social functioning is abolished, but with less extensive damage, rather than a loss of emotion there is a loss of emotional control.
20 cortical regions of the limbic system occupy intermediate associative positions : Anterior temporal cortex: gustatory and olfactory behavioral associations.Parahippocampal gyri:complex auditory associations ,complex thought associations derived from Wernicke’s area of the posterior temporal lobe.Middle and posterior cingulate cortex: sensorimotor behavioral associations occur.
22 Ablation of the Anterior Cingulate Gyri and Subcallosal Gyri Portions of the limbic cortex that communicate between the prefrontal cerebral cortex and the subcortical limbic structures.Releases the rage centers of the septum and hypothalamus from prefrontal inhibitory inﬂuence.Animal can become VIOLENT and much more subject to ﬁts of rage than normally.
23 Roles of prefrontal cortex conscious awareness of emotional feelingsprefrontal and limbic association areas, are important in conscious learned control of innate behavioral patterns.formulates plans and guides behavior, suppressing amygdala-induced responses that may be inappropriate for the situation at hand
25 Medial forebrain bundle Extends from the septal and orbitofrontal regions to the brain stem reticular formation.Communication system between limbic system and brainstem.Roles of reticular formation: mediate the orders of hypothalamus,arousal.
26 Higer centersto connect the limbic system and hypothalamus with the outer worldneural mechanisms necessary for implementing the appropriate skeletal muscle activity required to approach or avoid an adversary, participate in sexual activity, or display emotional expression.reinforce, modify, or suppress basic behavioral responses so that actions can be guided by planning, strategy, and judgment based on an understanding of the situation.
27 Pathologies (lesions) Voracious appetite:very hungeryIncreased (perverse) sexual activityDocility:Loss of normal fear/anger response,very calm and easy to controlMemory loss:Damage to hippocampus portion
28 Rage the slightest provocation causes an immediate savage attack. expected from an animal being severely punished.rage phenomenon is held in check mainly byventromedial nucleihippocampianterior limbic cortex (anterior cingulate gyri and subcallosal gyri)
29 Placidity and Tameness Tranquil,calmnessreward centers are stimulated
30 Neurotransmitter Systems and the Limbic System DopamineNoradrenergic systemCholinergtic systemSerotonin
32 Functions of limbic system The hypothalamus plays an important role in generating emotional behaviors…butThe amygdala has been implicated in playing a prominent role in integrating information and coordinating emotional behaviors in response to sensory stimuli, events, and memories. These findings were demonstrated in:Fear conditioning studies in rodentsMonkey studies (Kluver-Bucy)Human neuroimaging and lesion studiesStudies of memory modulation by hormones in lower animals.
33 Reward processing occurs in distinct brain circuits. Stimulation of these circuits can provide powerful reinforcement signals.Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area provide a learning signal that reflects a computation comparing the reward received to the reward expected.Drugs of abuse act on reward circuits.Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, and addiction, all involve limbic system neural circuitry.