Wetlands Wetlands Wetland Functions Wetland Functions Wetland Types Wetland Types wetland data wetland data Topics
January 2002 Wetlands Wetlands are areas that are periodically or permanently inundated by surface or ground water and support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas.
What do wetlands do? Wetland Functions Habitat nesting, spawning, rearing and resting sites for aquatic and land species, food chain production Hydrology protection of other areas from wave action and erosion, storage areas for storm water and flood water, ground and surface water aquifer recharge Water water quality protection, water filtration and Quality purification, treatment of nonpoint source runoff
maintain biodiversity maintain biodiversity provide habitat for animals provide habitat for animals maintain water quality maintain water quality support commercial fishing, forestry support commercial fishing, forestry reduce flood damage reduce flood damage hiking, fishing, hunting, hiking, fishing, hunting, bird watching, boating bird watching, boating aesthetic value aesthetic value Why are wetlands important? Wetland Values Did you know? Nationwide, an estimated 50 million people spend approximately $10 billion annually observing and photographing wetland-dependent birds.
There are many different kinds of wetlands. People place different values on them based on the functions they perform.
Where are wetlands located? Wetlands are located throughout NC Wetlands are located throughout NC There are two kinds of maps in NC that show the locations and types of wetlands: There are two kinds of maps in NC that show the locations and types of wetlands: 1. National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Maps 2. DCM Wetland Type Maps
January 2002 Example of National Wetland Inventory (NWI) Map NWI maps show many different wetland types
DCM’s wetland maps are easy to understand because wetlands are grouped into well-known categories.
January 2002 Example: DCM Wetland Type Map DCM’s maps show 13 wetland types
DCM’s GIS Wetland Type Data Show the location, type, and amount of wetlands in the North Carolina Coastal Plain
January 2002 Wetland Classification Wetland Types: Swamp Forest Bottomland Hardwood Pocosin Pine Flat Hardwood Flat Managed Pine Freshwater Marsh Salt/Brackish Marsh Estuarine Scrub Shrub Estuarine Forest Maritime Forest Headwater Swamp Human Impacted Modifiers: l Partially Drained/ Ditched l Cut-over l Cleared
Wetland Classification Hydrogeomorphic Classification (HGM): This classification describes the hydrology and the geomorphic setting of a wetland Riverine Flat or non-riverine Tidal
The following slides show photos of wetland types typically found in Coastal North Carolina.
Accuracy Assessment Accuracy was calculated to be 89% for wetlands and 71% for uplands. Over 600 field sites visited That means most of the sites we map as wetlands are indeed wetlands. Most of the sites we map as uplands are non-wetlands.
January 2002 Maps are the starting point DCM’s wetland maps show the location and types of wetlands What is the ecological significance of these wetlands? How important are they?
North Carolina Coastal Region Evaluation of Wetland Significance A model that rates the functional significance of wetlands