Presentation on theme: "Pneumonia. What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is: an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi; an inflammatory."— Presentation transcript:
What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is: an infection of one or both lungs which is usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi; an inflammatory condition of the lungs—especially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)—associated with, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space.
How Do You Get Pneumonia? Usually contracted during sleep or while coughing/sneezing. Some cases of pneumonia are contracted by breathing in small droplets that contain the organisms that can cause pneumonia. These droplets get into the air when a person infected with these germs coughs or sneezes. In other cases, pneumonia is caused when bacteria or viruses that are normally present in the mouth, throat, or nose inadvertently enter the lung.
What Causes Pneumonia? Once organisms enter the lungs, they usually settle in the air sacs and passages of the lung where they rapidly grow in number. This area of the lung then becomes filled with fluid and pus as the body attempts to fight off the infection. The initial infection is caused, in part, by dampness in lungs and habitat that allows for certain bacteria to grow and flourish.
How is Pneumonia Diagnosed? Pneumonia may be suspected when the doctor examines the patient and hears coarse breathing or crackling sounds when listening to a portion of the chest with a stethoscope. There may be wheezing or the sounds of breathing may be faint in a particular area of the chest. The most common tests that can diagnose pneumonia are blood tests and sputum samples. Sputum is a thick mucus produced when coughing.
What are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Most people who develop pneumonia initially have symptoms of a cold (upper respiratory infection, for example, sneezing, sore throat, cough), which are then followed by a high fever (sometimes as high as 104 F), shaking, and a cough with sputum production. The sputum is usually discolored and sometimes bloody. At times, the individual's skin color may change and become dusky or purplish – known as ‘cyanosis’ – due to not being oxygenated. Children do not show any specific signs – other than cold.
What’s the Treatment for Pneumonia? Two vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal disease: the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23; Pneumovax). The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is part of the routine infant immunization schedule in the U.S. and is recommended for all children < 2 years of age and children 2-4 years of age who have certain medical conditions. In earlier years of medicine there wasn’t a cure, and would just simply die due to the infection.
What is the Prognosis for Pneumonia? Pneumonia can be a serious and life-threatening infection. This is true especially in the elderly, children, and those who have other serious medical problems, such as COPD, heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. Fortunately, with the discovery of many potent antibiotics, most cases of pneumonia can be successfully treated. In fact, pneumonia can usually be treated with oral antibiotics without the need for hospitalization.
How is Pneumonia Related to the Respiratory System? Pneumonia can reduce the ability of the lungs to allow oxygen diffusion across the alveoli if accumulations of pus (exudate) or fluids block significant portions of the lungs.
Fact of Pneumonia Bacterial and fungal (but not viral) pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics. Bacteria causing pneumonia can be identified by sputum culture. Although most of these people recover, approximately 5% will die from pneumonia. Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Currently, over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year in the United States.