1.Heart Diseases700,142 29.0 2.Cancer553,768 22.9 3.Cerebrovascular diseases163,538 6.8 4.Chronic lower respiratory diseases123,013 5.1 5.Accidents (Unintentional injuries)101,537 4.2 6.Diabetes mellitus71,372 3.0 7.Influenza and Pneumonia62,034 2.6 8.Alzheimer’s disease53,852 2.2 9. 9. Nephritis39,480 1.6 10.Septicemia32,238 1.3 Source: US Mortality Public Use Data Tape 2001, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. RankCause of Death No. of deaths % of all deaths
What Cancer is the leading killer of women? Breast cancer? Wrong ! Lung Cancer kills more Women every year than any other cancer.
What Cancer is the leading killer of men? Prostate cancer? Wrong ! Lung Cancer kills more Men every year than any other cancer. Prostate produces key substances for the semen. Example, alkaline chems and simple sugars. Forms 25% of semen
The lungs, a pair of sponge- like, cone shaped organs are part of the respiratory system,they take in oxygen and pass it onto our blood which delivers the oxygen to our cells. The lungs also get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body’s cells. Lungs RESPIRATION = GAS EXCHANGE
Like all cells of the body, the cells in the lungs divide and reproduce at a controlled rate to repair worn out or injured tissues and allow for normal growth. Lung cancer develops when cells inside the lungs multiply at an uncontrollable rate. These abnormal tissue masses are called NEOPLASMS or TUMORS.
Benign tumors are not cancer. They can often be removed and in most cases the tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. They are encapsulated by healthy cells, so they do not metastasize. Malignant tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divided cancer cells can invade and destroy the tissue around them. They are capable of metastasis. Two Types of Tumors?
Causes Of Lung Cancer Causes Of Lung Cancer : Substances called carcinogens, damage the cells in the lungs. Over time the damaged cells may become cancerous. Cigars, pipes and cigarettes: the best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit or never start smoking. Environmental Tobacco smoke: more commonly known as second hand smoke. Asbestos: a group of airborne minerals that occur naturally as fibers and are used in certain industries. Radon: is an invisible odorless and tasteless radioactive gas that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Pollution: air pollutants such as the by-products of the combustion of diesel and other fossil fuels. Lung diseases: certain lung diseases such as tuberculosis increase a persons chance of getting lung cancer
Facts About Lung Cancer Facts About Lung Cancer More than 150,000 Americans died from lung cancer in 2005. Only 12-15 % of lung cancer patients are cured with today’s treatments. More than 90% of lung cancers are preventable. Cigarette smoking is responsible for an estimated 87% of lung cancer deaths. 90% in men and 79% in women.
Because lung tissue is soft and spongy, tumors usually grow to advanced stages before causing discomfort. As lung cancer is usually diagnosed in a late stage, it has often already undergone metastasis. Malignant tumors spread to other areas of the body and destroy normal tissue. Lung cancer can metastasize and spread to other organs in the body usually into the brain, bone marrow, and liver.
Lung cancers are divided into two major groups. Small cell lung cancer and Non-Small cell lung cancer. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Notice the abundance of pink cell contents (cytoplasm) around the round blue nuclei. This makes the cells appear "Large." Small cell lung cancer Notice that each cell consist almost entirely of a blue-stained nucleus (DNA). This gives the cells the appearance of looking “Small" under the microscope.
To check for lung cancer a tissue sample is required. A number of procedures may be used to obtain this tissue. Bronchoscopy : the doctor puts a bronchoscope ( a thin light tube) into the mouth or nose and down through the windpipe Needle Aspiraton : A needle is inserted through the chest into the tumor to remove a sample of tissue Thoracentesis : Using a needle, the doctor removes a sample of the fluid that surrounds the lungs to check for cancer cells. Thoracotomy : Surgery to open the chest is sometimes needed to diagnose lung cancer
Staging The Disease If the diagnosis is cancer the doctor will want to learn the stage or extent of the disease. Cat or CT scan: a computer linked to a x-ray machine creates a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body Magnetic Resonance Imaging: a powerful magnet linked to a computer makes detailed pictures of areas inside the body. Radionuclide scanning: The patient swallows or receives an injection of a mildly radioactive substance. A machine measures and records the level of radioactivity in certain organs to reveal abnormal areas. Bone scan: A bone scan, one type of radionuclide scanning Mediastinotomy: Using a lighted viewing instrument, called a scope, the doctor examines the lymphatic system.
Treatment depends on a number of factors including the type of lung cancer, the size, location, and the extent of the tumor and the general health of the patient. Surgery: is an operation to remove the cancer. Chemotherapy: is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. Radiation therapy: also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high energy rays to kill cancer cells Photodynamic therapy: a type of laser therapy, involves the use of a special chemical that is injected into the bloodstream and absorbed by cells all over the body. The chemical rapidly leaves normal cells but remains in cancer cells for a longer time. A laser light aimed at the cancer activates the chemical, which kills the cancerous cells. Nutritional Oncology – Now the new frontier
Side Effects: the side effects of cancer treatment depend on the type of treatment and may be different for each person. Surgery: for lung cancer surgery is a major operation. Pain or weakness in the chest are common along with several weeks or months of recovery. Chemotherapy: affects normal cells as well as cancerous cells. Common side affects include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and fatigue. Radiation therapy: also affects normal cells. Common side affects include loss of appetite, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fatigue, skin irritation in treated area, head aches, nausea, vomiting, and hair loss. Photodynamic therapy: makes skin sensitive to any light for six plus weeks.
QUESTIONS? Name a test that can diagnose lung cancer What are the two basic types of lung cancer? What is the type of cancer treatment that involves lasers called? ? ?