3 What is CCD and CMOS?Array of Diodes (photosites) that produce a voltage:Linearly Proportional to the AMOUNT incident light.Non-linearly Dependant to the WAVELENGTHBuilt out of layers of SiliconeSilicone is sensitive to lightLayers add functionality – different layers perform different functions. (called ‘die’)
4 CCD History Invented in 1970 by Bell Labs Honeywell developed this into an X-Y scanner and taken further by IBM. Originally for data storage!Taken up by research and astronomy areas.Now used in security cameras, digital cameras and virtually all digital video applications.
6 CCD vs CMOS More susceptible to noise Light sensitivity is lower Create high-quality, low-noise images.Greater sensitivity and fidelity100 times more powerRequire specialized assembly linesOlder and more developed technologyMore susceptible to noiseLight sensitivity is lowerConsume little powerEasy to ManufactureCheaperPicture quality, sensitivity and cost vs. Cost and battery life.
7 Types of CCD and CMOS Filter Array Beam Splitters CCD and CMOS Cheap EasySmallBeam SplittersExpensiveHigh QualityOne frame requiredCCD and CMOSRotational LensCheaperGood quality3 frames req’d – only stationary objects
8 Properties Resolution: 3.2 Megapixels (2054 x 1056) Frame Rate: 30 ~ 500 Frames/secDynamic Range: Signal – noise ratio. Dark SignalWindowing: Enhance Region of InterestRemote Control: Simple serial charactersAnti-blooming: Bright object saturation.Interface: Serial, parallel, etc.Power: 2.5WSize: 4mm and largerCost: $60 and upwards
10 Interfacing Many different options: Requires specific power setup Serial TransmissionParallel TransmissionVHF/UHF outputRequires specific power setupSend Input data to setup:Auto GainShutter SpeedPower mode, image specs etcIncreasing # of onboard calculations
13 Example Add a CCD / CMOS to the robot in the lab. Robot must wander and clean the your house while you are sleeping.Choose CMOS due to lower power consumption.Need high sensitivity for night vision.Choose the Sharp LZOP3817.