Presentation on theme: "WHAT INCREASES RISK OF MEN’S USE OF VAW AND WHAT CAN WE DO TO PREVENT IT? Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) Gary Barker,"— Presentation transcript:
WHAT INCREASES RISK OF MEN’S USE OF VAW AND WHAT CAN WE DO TO PREVENT IT? Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) Gary Barker, Juan Manuel Contreras, Brian Heilman, Ajay Singh, Ravi Verma International Center for Research on Women Marcos Nascimento and Marcio Segundo, Promundo
The Questions … What do men report as their current practices related to IPV, as well as to care work, health,and interactions with intimate partners and children? What factors contribute to more equitable and non-violent relationships? What are the childhood and social factors associated with violence – and with gender equality and caregiving? What are programmatic and policy- related implications of these findings?
International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) Multi-country study on men and gender equality, asking men and women about men’s practices and attitudes Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Croatia, India, Rwanda – 2009-2010 South Africa MRC study on men, health and violence incorporated some IMAGES questions and provided questions for IMAGES 5 additional sites in Asia starting in 2010 coordinated by Partners for Prevention To date, >15,000 interviews in 7 countries completed Stratified random household surveys in at least two major urban areas, women and men ages 19-59 One of the most complete surveys of its kind that includes men’s and women’s assessments and includes a range of gender issues including GBV, work-life balance, health/health-seeking, care work, gender norms Coordination: ICRW and Promundo
The International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)- Partners Overall Coordination: ICRW and Promundo Countries Brazil, Mexico, Chile, South Africa, Rwanda, Croatia, India Collaborating Organizations Center for Gender Studies, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway ICRW – Asia Regional Office, Delhi, India Colégio de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa CulturaSalud, Santiago, Chile Partners for Prevention: A UN Joint Programme for Ending Violence Against Women in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand CESI, Zagreb, Croatia Rwandan Men’s Resource Center
The International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)- Items Gender Equality and Quality of Life Study – Norway WHO Multi-country study on VAW GEM Scale Childhood Trauma Scale DHS Men, Health and Violence Study – South Africa – Medical Research Council Impact evaluation studies from Promundo and ICRW
In spite of 5-10 years of laws against GBV and prevention activities, rates still alarmingly high
Key factors associated with men’s reports of IPV Economic stress Childhood witnessing of IPV and experiences of violence in the home, school and community Gender norms Alcohol use
Work stress is related to men’s use of IPV Statistically significant relationship (at p <.05 level) in Chile, Croatia, and India
Experiencing violence during childhood is common for most men
Witnessing IPV as a child a key factor in men’s use of IPV Statistically significant relationship (at p <.001 level) in all countries
Men believe in gender equality in the abstract and in the specific but ….
A majority of men think GBV laws make it too easy to arrest men – suggesting the need for more public education
Is caregiving a possible pathway to change and promotion of non-violence? In India, Brazil and Croatia, men’s participation in domestic activities, including child care was associated with: -Women’s overall satisfaction with their intimate relationship/marriage -Women’s sexual satisfaction If many women and men see the benefits of more equitable relationships, why is it so slow to promote faster change?
Brief Reflections from the Qualitative Component: “Men who Care” study Mexico: resentment from low income men toward partner and children related to economic stress; tremendous generational changes; fatherhood as first space for showing emotions and space for tremendous change in men’s behaviors and attitudes “ Me gusta hacer las labores de la casa porque es para nuestro bienestar, de mis hijos y mi esposa. Yo limpio la casa para que mis hijos lleguen y la disfruten. Yo limpio para que ellos est é n bien, aseados … Bueno luego viene como la depresi ó n. Pero bueno, lo voy a hacer, porque si no lo hago qui é n lo va a hacer, y esto va a ser un despapaye …” (Sergio).“ Me gusta hacer las labores de la casa porque es para nuestro bienestar, de mis hijos y mi esposa. Yo limpio la casa para que mis hijos lleguen y la disfruten. Yo limpio para que ellos est é n bien, aseados … Bueno luego viene como la depresi ó n. Pero bueno, lo voy a hacer, porque si no lo hago qui é n lo va a hacer, y esto va a ser un despapaye …” (Sergio). Source: Juan Guillermo Figueroa, Colegio de Mexico
Possible ways forward: From IPV prevention with men to a broader gender equality agenda Growing evidence base of evaluated interventions reaching men and boys in GBV prevention (Program H, Sexto Sentido) Those showing the most impact focus on questioning underlying gender norms Need for comprehensive prevention that includes ending corporal punishment, attention to boys’ childhood experiences of violence Need for attention to caregiving roles, men’s roles as fathers, men’s and women’s income security Comprehensive policies and approaches that find men’s self-interest in change while also ending impunity for IPV and empowering women
Some Regional Activities Sports-based activities as a way to reach boys and men Getting White Ribbon activities into the public sector Promoting paternity leave and men’s involvement in childbirth and other policy approaches(Brazil, Chile) Building the field of practice with men via MenEngage – in dialogue and partnership with women’s rights groups